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Table 1.

Kinematic and wake parameters during locomotion by Scomber japonicus at speeds of 1.2 and 2.2 FLs-1

1.2 FLs-12.2 FLs-1
ParameterHorizontalaVerticalaHorizontalbVerticalc
Stroke duration (ms) 200±24 — 119±8 — 
Body angle to horizontal (degrees) — -3±4 — -4±4 
Vortex radius (cm) 0.82±0.26 0.78±0.23 0.93±0.08 0.83±0.26 
Distance between vortex centers (cm) 5.49±0.71 3.25±0.66 6.79±1.05 3.54±0.49 
Ring axis angle (degrees) 34±10 86±13 27±5 91±7 
Jet angle (degrees) 67±9 -3±5 53±12 -2±4 
Circulation (cm2 s-131±9 15±8 52±8 27±11 
Momentum (g cm2 s-1437±123 210±110 1001±157 529±208 
Lateral force (mN) 22±6 — 65±14 — 
Vertical force (mN) — -1±1 — -1±2 
Downstream force (mN) 10±5 11±6 50±16 44±17 
Mean downstream force/mean lateral force 0.5 NA 0.77 NA 
Total force (mN) 24±7 11±6 84±13 44±17 
1.2 FLs-12.2 FLs-1
ParameterHorizontalaVerticalaHorizontalbVerticalc
Stroke duration (ms) 200±24 — 119±8 — 
Body angle to horizontal (degrees) — -3±4 — -4±4 
Vortex radius (cm) 0.82±0.26 0.78±0.23 0.93±0.08 0.83±0.26 
Distance between vortex centers (cm) 5.49±0.71 3.25±0.66 6.79±1.05 3.54±0.49 
Ring axis angle (degrees) 34±10 86±13 27±5 91±7 
Jet angle (degrees) 67±9 -3±5 53±12 -2±4 
Circulation (cm2 s-131±9 15±8 52±8 27±11 
Momentum (g cm2 s-1437±123 210±110 1001±157 529±208 
Lateral force (mN) 22±6 — 65±14 — 
Vertical force (mN) — -1±1 — -1±2 
Downstream force (mN) 10±5 11±6 50±16 44±17 
Mean downstream force/mean lateral force 0.5 NA 0.77 NA 
Total force (mN) 24±7 11±6 84±13 44±17 

Values are presented as means ± S.D.

FL, fork length.

NA, not applicable.

a

N=20 (five strokes from each of four fish); bN=12 (at least one stroke from each of four fish); cN=7 (at least one stroke from each of four fish).

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