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Table 2.

The unloaded excised intervertebral angles were measured directly from a tracing of the X-radiograph shown in Fig. 2 as the angles between lines drawn parallel to the long axes of adjacent vertebral centra (Gal,1993a)

JointUnloaded angle (degrees)Loaded angle (degrees)Δθiv (degrees)
L1L2 +6 -4 -10 
L2L3 +3 -4 -7 
L3L4 +4 -4 -8 
L4L5 +3 -4 -7 
L5L6 +7 -4 -11 
Mean Δθiv   -8.6 (≈-9) 
JointUnloaded angle (degrees)Loaded angle (degrees)Δθiv (degrees)
L1L2 +6 -4 -10 
L2L3 +3 -4 -7 
L3L4 +4 -4 -8 
L4L5 +3 -4 -7 
L5L6 +7 -4 -11 
Mean Δθiv   -8.6 (≈-9) 

The loaded in vivo angles were estimated from the external dorsal curve of the `groomer' animal shown in Fig. 1 (and explained in detail in the methodology text).

Δθiv per joint was taken as the difference between the loaded angular position (flexed) and the unloaded (hyper-extended)position.

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