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Table 2.

Force-generating properties of the proximal hindlimb muscles ofRana pipiens

MuscleMass (g)Pennation angle (degrees)PCSA (mm2)Maximum force (N)
ADd 0.108±0.01 6.93 1.89 
ADv 0.113±0.01 8.22 2.24 
CR 0.581±0.03 20 51.96 14.19 
GL 0.195±0.02 14.28 3.9 
GR 0.356±0.02 23.66 6.46 
ILf 0.06±0.01 10 5.62 1.53 
ILe 0.04±0.01 10 9.88 2.7 
ILi 0.06±0.01 5.96 1.63 
SA 0.075±0.01 3.67 1.01 
SM 0.345±0.02 17.61 4.81 
STd 0.047±0 15 5.53 1.51 
STv 0.051±0 15 5.35 1.46 
TFL 0.035±0.01 4.35 1.19 
MuscleMass (g)Pennation angle (degrees)PCSA (mm2)Maximum force (N)
ADd 0.108±0.01 6.93 1.89 
ADv 0.113±0.01 8.22 2.24 
CR 0.581±0.03 20 51.96 14.19 
GL 0.195±0.02 14.28 3.9 
GR 0.356±0.02 23.66 6.46 
ILf 0.06±0.01 10 5.62 1.53 
ILe 0.04±0.01 10 9.88 2.7 
ILi 0.06±0.01 5.96 1.63 
SA 0.075±0.01 3.67 1.01 
SM 0.345±0.02 17.61 4.81 
STd 0.047±0 15 5.53 1.51 
STv 0.051±0 15 5.35 1.46 
TFL 0.035±0.01 4.35 1.19 

Muscle mass, pennation angle, and physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA)were measured for 13 hindlimb muscles in each of six frogs. The maximum force,or maximum isometric contractile tension, was estimated for each muscle (see Materials and methods).

SM, semimembranosus; GR, gracilus major; ADd and ADv, adductor magnus dorsal and ventral heads; CR, cruralis; GL, gluteus magnus; STv and STd,semitendinosus ventral and dorsal heads; ILf, iliofibularis; ILe, iliacus externus; ILi, iliacus internus; SA, sartorius; TFL, tensor fascia latae.

Values for muscle mass are the mean ± S.D.

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