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Table 3.

Selected kinematic variables of three aquatic feeding specialists,Chelus fimbriatus, Chelodina longicollis and Chelydra serpentina, and two aquatic feeding generalists, Pelusios castaneus andTerrapene carolina

VariableChelus fimbriatus, suction feederChelodina longicollis, suction feederChelydra serpentina, ram feederPelusios castaneus, ram-suction feederTerrapene carolina, ram-suction feeder
Food/prey Fish Pieces of meat Fish/worm Fish/snail Mealworm 
Time to maximum gape (ms) 20 ≈60 30 (f) 90 (f) 400 (S) 
   60 (w) 50 (sn) 530 (B) 
Gape cycle duration (ms) 80 110 80 (f) 300 (f) 610 (B) 
   100 (w) 150 (sn)  
Maximum gape velocity (cms-1150 ≈30 120 (f) 30 (f) ≈15 (S+B) 
   50 (w) 50 (sn)  
Maximum velocity of forward thrust (cms-1180 24 150 (f) 10 (f) ≈10 (S) 
   50 (w) 50 (sn)  
Time to maximum hyoid depression (ms) 50 ≈40 60 (f) 120 (f) 470 (S) 
   110 (w) 50 (sn)  
Maximum velocity of hyoid depression (cms-190 ≈40 120 (f) 15 (f) ≈25 (S) 
   50 (w) 50 (sn)  
Maximum prey velocity (cms-1280 80 ≈50 10 (f) 
    110 (sn)  
RSI +0.4 to -0.5 ≈+0.7 +0.4 (f) 
 (during suction phase)   -0.3 (sn)  
VariableChelus fimbriatus, suction feederChelodina longicollis, suction feederChelydra serpentina, ram feederPelusios castaneus, ram-suction feederTerrapene carolina, ram-suction feeder
Food/prey Fish Pieces of meat Fish/worm Fish/snail Mealworm 
Time to maximum gape (ms) 20 ≈60 30 (f) 90 (f) 400 (S) 
   60 (w) 50 (sn) 530 (B) 
Gape cycle duration (ms) 80 110 80 (f) 300 (f) 610 (B) 
   100 (w) 150 (sn)  
Maximum gape velocity (cms-1150 ≈30 120 (f) 30 (f) ≈15 (S+B) 
   50 (w) 50 (sn)  
Maximum velocity of forward thrust (cms-1180 24 150 (f) 10 (f) ≈10 (S) 
   50 (w) 50 (sn)  
Time to maximum hyoid depression (ms) 50 ≈40 60 (f) 120 (f) 470 (S) 
   110 (w) 50 (sn)  
Maximum velocity of hyoid depression (cms-190 ≈40 120 (f) 15 (f) ≈25 (S) 
   50 (w) 50 (sn)  
Maximum prey velocity (cms-1280 80 ≈50 10 (f) 
    110 (sn)  
RSI +0.4 to -0.5 ≈+0.7 +0.4 (f) 
 (during suction phase)   -0.3 (sn)  

Data are taken from Van Damme and Aerts(1997), Lauder and Prendergast(1992), Lemell and Weisgram(1997), Bels et al.(1997) and Summers et al.(1998).

≈indicates values not specified in the publications but that could be calculated approximately from pictures or graphs.

RSI, ram-suction index; f, fish; w, worm; sn, snail; B, Bels et al.(1997); S, Summers et al.(1998).

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