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Table 1.

In vivo stroke power and work output for cyclical muscle contractions during locomotion

Muscle(s)ActivityStroke power (W kg-1)Stroke work (J kg-1)Reference
Scallop adductor Swimming 120 20 Marsh et al. (1992) 
Pigeon pectoralis Flying (steady-speed) 130 10 Biewener et al. (1998a) 
Quail pectoralis Flying (take-off) 560 17.7 Askew et al. (2001) 
Turkey hindlimb extensors Acceleration 150 26 This study 
Muscle(s)ActivityStroke power (W kg-1)Stroke work (J kg-1)Reference
Scallop adductor Swimming 120 20 Marsh et al. (1992) 
Pigeon pectoralis Flying (steady-speed) 130 10 Biewener et al. (1998a) 
Quail pectoralis Flying (take-off) 560 17.7 Askew et al. (2001) 
Turkey hindlimb extensors Acceleration 150 26 This study 

Values presented are per unit muscle mass.

Scallop values are calculated from values for the first cycle in a swim of Chlamys hastata, 62 W kg-1, and a reported stroke time of 51% of the cycle. Pigeon (Columba livia) values are calculated from the reported power output during steady flight, 70 W kg-1, and the fraction of the wingbeat cycle spent in downstroke, 0.63. Quail (Coturnix Chinensis) power output is calculated from the mean power reported for a complete wingbeat cycle in take-off (390 W kg-1) and the fraction of the wingbeat cycle spent in downstroke, 0.70.

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