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Table 2.

Stage-dependent actions of Tbx5 and Tbx4 in limb initiation

A Effect of CAGGS-Tbx5
Stage of injectionTotalNumber of wing-like extra limbs
0 (15%) 
15 2 (13%) 
10 14 7 (50%) 
11 15 7 (47%) 
12 15 1 (7%) 
13 13 0 (0%) 
14 10 0 (0%) 
15 0 (0%) 
Totals 103 19 
A Effect of CAGGS-Tbx5
Stage of injectionTotalNumber of wing-like extra limbs
0 (15%) 
15 2 (13%) 
10 14 7 (50%) 
11 15 7 (47%) 
12 15 1 (7%) 
13 13 0 (0%) 
14 10 0 (0%) 
15 0 (0%) 
Totals 103 19 
B Effect of CAGGS-Tbx4
Stage of injectionTotalNumber of leg-like extra limbs
0 (0%) 
15 4 (27%) 
10 12 5 (42%) 
11 18 6 (33%) 
12 16 2 (13%) 
13 12 0 (0%) 
14 10 0 (0%) 
15 10 0 (0%) 
Totals 92 17 
B Effect of CAGGS-Tbx4
Stage of injectionTotalNumber of leg-like extra limbs
0 (0%) 
15 4 (27%) 
10 12 5 (42%) 
11 18 6 (33%) 
12 16 2 (13%) 
13 12 0 (0%) 
14 10 0 (0%) 
15 10 0 (0%) 
Totals 92 17 

(A) Tbx5 was misexpressed by in ovo electroporation at various developmental stages. Wing-like additional limbs were induced only when electroporation was performed at stages 8 to 12.

(B) Likewise, formation of leg-like additional limbs was observed only when Tbx4 was misexpressed at stages 9 to 12, setting up a short critical period from stages 8 to 12.

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