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Keywords: walking
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Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2021) 224 (2): jeb219543.
Published: 26 January 2021
... >0.999), than females. For all elephants, estimated RFM ( r =0.45, P =0.004) was positively correlated with insulin. Distance walked was negatively correlated with age ( r =−0.46, P =0.007). When adjusted for FFM and age ( P <0.001), non-cycling females had less fat compared with cycling females, such...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2020) 223 (21): jeb232645.
Published: 12 November 2020
...Giovanni A. Cavagna; Mario A. Legramandi ABSTRACT It is known that mechanical work to sustain walking is reduced, owing to a transfer of gravitational potential energy into kinetic energy, as in a pendulum. The factors affecting this transfer are unclear. In particular, the phase relationship...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2019) 222 (20): jeb206383.
Published: 21 October 2019
... locomotor demands. Thirteen healthy adults walked across a range of speeds (0.8, 1.2, 1.6, 2.0 m s −1 ) and slopes (0 deg, +5 deg, +10 deg) to determine whether hip, knee and ankle joints and their extensors and flexors altered their mechanical function in response to increased speed and slope. As walking...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2018) 221 (22): jeb182113.
Published: 16 November 2018
...Sarah N. Fickey; Michael G. Browne; Jason R. Franz ABSTRACT The plantarflexor muscles are critical for forward propulsion and leg swing initiation during the push-off phase of walking, serving to modulate step length and walking speed. However, reduced ankle power output is common in aging and gait...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2018) 221 (10): jeb152538.
Published: 22 May 2018
... hindlimbs for bipedal terrestrial locomotion, for at least some part of their life history. Here, we review the scaling of avian striding bipedal gaits to explore how body mass and leg morphology influence walking and running. We collate literature data from 21 species, spanning a 2500× range in body mass...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2016) 219 (22): 3626–3634.
Published: 15 November 2016
... measured the mechanical work done during level walking in Nepalese porters while carrying different loads at several speeds. Our results show that the Nepalese porters do not use an equivalent mechanism as the African women to reduce work. In contrast, the Nepalese porters develop an equal amount of total...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2015) 218 (15): 2472–2481.
Published: 01 August 2015
...Anthony G. Schache; Nicholas A. T. Brown; Marcus G. Pandy ABSTRACT We investigated how the human lower-limb joints modulate work and power during walking and running on level ground. Experimental data were recorded from seven participants for a broad range of steady-state locomotion speeds (walking...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2015) 218 (3): 340–352.
Published: 01 February 2015
... and edited the manuscript. Competing interests The authors declare no competing or financial interests. 17 9 2014 27 11 2014 © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd 2015 Leg movement Motion capture Whole-body coordination Walking Climbing Phasmatodea...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2014) 217 (18): 3209–3220.
Published: 15 September 2014
...Daniel Kress; Martin Egelhaaf In contrast to flying flies, walking flies experience relatively strong rotational gaze shifts, even during overall straight phases of locomotion. These gaze shifts are caused by the walking apparatus and modulated by the stride frequency. Accordingly, even during...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2013) 216 (22): 4172–4183.
Published: 15 November 2013
... use position information from the anterior legs to control the touchdown position of the ipsilateral posterior legs. Here we addressed the question of whether not only the hindleg but also the middle leg performs targeting, and whether targeting is still present in a walking animal when influences of...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2013) 216 (19): 3599–3605.
Published: 01 October 2013
... kinematics movement fine branch milieu grasping walking Despite the huge advances conferred by studies of locomotion in controlled conditions, more and more researchers are beginning to understand the value of investigating locomotion in ecologically pertinent contexts ( Irschick and Garland...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2013) 216 (3): 480–491.
Published: 01 February 2013
..., however, is based on the study of several insect species, which differ greatly in size and mass. Each of these species tends to walk at a rather narrow range of speeds. We have addressed these issues by examining four strains of Drosophila , which are similar in size and mass, but tend to walk at...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2012) 215 (24): 4255–4266.
Published: 15 December 2012
...Martyna Grabowska; Elzbieta Godlewska; Joachim Schmidt; Silvia Daun-Gruhn SUMMARY The analysis of inter-leg coordination in insect walking is generally a study of six-legged locomotion. For decades, the stick insect Carausius morosus has been instrumental for unravelling the rules and mechanisms...
Includes: Multimedia, Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2012) 215 (9): 1523–1532.
Published: 01 May 2012
... behavioral strategies such as compensatory head movements. During self-movement, head rotations compensate for changes in body attitude in order to stabilize gaze. However, how walking animals cope with uneven structured substrates, which may affect body and gaze orientation, is still unknown. We used stereo...
Includes: Multimedia, Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2012) 215 (8): 1331–1336.
Published: 15 April 2012
... exercise-induced eCB signaling following high-intensity endurance running. eCB signaling does not significantly increase following low-intensity walking in these taxa, and eCB signaling does not significantly increase in the non-cursorial ferrets following exercise at any intensity. This study provides the...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2011) 214 (12): 2020–2026.
Published: 15 June 2011
... americana ) in response to static electric fields at levels equal to and above those found in the natural environment. Walking behaviour (including velocity, distance moved, turn angle and time spent walking) were analysed as cockroaches approached an electric field boundary in an open arena, and also when...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2011) 214 (12): 2057–2064.
Published: 15 June 2011
... measurements that would allow a definite conclusion. We measured the walking speeds of cockroaches exploring a large arena and found that the body movements tended to cluster at one of two preferred speeds, either very slow (<10 cm s –1 ) or fairly fast (∼30 cm s –1 ). To highlight the neural control of...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2010) 213 (20): 3515–3526.
Published: 15 October 2010
.... latissimus dorsi and deltoid for the forelimb) should be greater during swimming than during walking, and activity in retractors (e.g. coracobrachialis and pectoralis for the forelimb) should be greater during walking than during swimming. Differences between aquatic and terrestrial forelimb movements are...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2010) 213 (14): 2386–2398.
Published: 15 July 2010
... containing the jumping muscles and are 131% longer than the body. The ratio of leg lengths is: 1:2.1:4.5 (front:middle:hind, respectively). The hind tarsi are reduced and their role is supplanted by two pairs of tibial spurs that can rotate through 180 deg. During horizontal walking the hind legs are...
Includes: Multimedia, Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2010) 213 (5): 790–797.
Published: 01 March 2010
... tested the hypothesis that plantigrade foot posture reduces the energetic cost of transport (COT) during walking in humans. When human subjects walked with their heels slightly elevated in a ‘low-digitigrade’ posture, COT increased by 53% above that of normal plantigrade walking. By contrast, there was...