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Keywords: walk
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Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2019) 222 (2): jeb159277.
Published: 16 January 2019
.... In this study, we examined the stride parameters and ground reaction forces from three adult giraffes in a zoological park, across a range of walking speeds. The patterns of GRFs during walking indicate that giraffes, similar to other mammalian quadrupeds, maintain a forelimb-biased weight distribution...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2018) 221 (16): jeb174755.
Published: 23 August 2018
...Neville J. Pires; Brendan S. Lay; Jonas Rubenson ABSTRACT Surprisingly little information exists of the mechanics in the steps initializing the walk-to-run transition (WRT) in humans. Here, we assess how mechanical work of the limbs (vertical and horizontal) and the individual joints (ankle, knee...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2015) 218 (20): 3192–3198.
Published: 1 October 2015
...Tetsuya Ogawa; Noritaka Kawashima; Hiroki Obata; Kazuyuki Kanosue; Kimitaka Nakazawa ABSTRACT Here, we investigate the association of neural control between walking and running, and in particular, how these two gait modes at different velocities are controlled by the central nervous system...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2015) 218 (18): 2830–2839.
Published: 1 September 2015
...Tatjana Y. Hubel; James R. Usherwood ABSTRACT Terrestrial locomotion on legs is energetically expensive. Compared with cycling, or with locomotion in swimming or flying animals, walking and running are highly uneconomical. Legged gaits that minimise mechanical work have previously been identified...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2014) 217 (19): 3519–3527.
Published: 1 October 2014
...Neville J. Pires; Brendan S. Lay; Jonas Rubenson Two commonly proposed mechanical explanations for the walk-to-run transition (WRT) include the prevention of muscular over-exertion (effort) and the minimization of peak musculoskeletal loads and thus injury risk. The purpose of this study...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2012) 215 (17): 2980–2991.
Published: 1 September 2012
... with the ground. We measured the timing and amplitude of the electromyographic activity of the intrinsic muscles of the forelimb in relation to the phase of gait (stance versus swing) and the torque demand placed on each joint during walking, trotting and cantering. We found that all forelimb muscles, except...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2008) 211 (24): 3889–3907.
Published: 15 December 2008
....) and stability (≤20 deg.) of the head and trunk. Three adult horses ( Equus caballus ) performing walks, trots and canters were videotaped in lateral view. Data analysis included locomotor velocity, segmental positions, pitch and linear displacements and velocities, and head displacement frequencies. Equine...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2008) 211 (23): 3744–3749.
Published: 1 December 2008
...James R. Usherwood; Katie L. Szymanek; Monica A. Daley SUMMARY The constraints to maximum walking speed and the underlying cause of the walk–run transition remains controversial. However, the motions of the body and legs can be reduced to a few mechanical principles, which, if valid,impose simple...
Includes: Multimedia, Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2007) 210 (20): 3513–3524.
Published: 15 October 2007
...Jonas Rubenson; Denham B. Heliams; Shane K. Maloney; Philip C. Withers; David G. Lloyd; Paul A. Fournier SUMMARY The alleged high net energy cost of running and low net energy cost of walking in humans have played an important role in the interpretation of the evolution of human bipedalism...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2007) 210 (11): 1885–1896.
Published: 1 June 2007
...Maarten F. Bobbert; Constanza B. Gómez Álvarez; P. René van Weeren; Lars Roepstorff; Michael A. Weishaupt SUMMARY The purpose of this study was to determine whether individual limb forces could be calculated accurately from kinematics of trotting and walking horses. We collected kinematic data...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2007) 210 (3): 533–540.
Published: 1 February 2007
...James R. Usherwood; Sarah B. Williams; Alan M. Wilson SUMMARY Here, we present a simple stiff-limbed passive model of quadrupedal walking, compare mechanics predicted from the model with those observed from forceplate measurements of walking dogs and consider the implications of deviation from...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2007) 210 (2): 187–197.
Published: 15 January 2007
... the different gaits. This also allowed us to evaluate whether gaits should be considered a continuum or as discrete entities. Foot-fall timings (stance times, swing times, duty factors and stride frequencies) for walk, tolt, trot, pace, left canter, right canter, left gallop and right gallop during over-ground...