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Journal: Journal of Experimental Biology
J Exp Biol (2002) 205 (1): 109–120.
Published: 1 January 2002
... Calidris alpina dunlin shorebird wader energy balance rainfall winter storm Tomales Bay Bolinas Lagoon. The energy requirements of free-living birds generally exceed the existence metabolism (EM) of caged birds, because of the costs of foraging, flying to and from roost sites, and avoiding...