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Keywords: stroke amplitude
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Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2012) 215 (18): 3317–3323.
Published: 15 September 2012
... mean maximum lift was not significantly different from that required to support body mass (95±8%), mean wingbeat frequency was 23.7±0.6 Hz, and mean stroke amplitude was 105±5 deg in the forewing and 96±5 deg in the hindwing – all of which are close to free-flight values. Instead, the low cost...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2011) 214 (24): 4151–4159.
Published: 15 December 2011
...,F =0.09±0.01). Pregnancy also induced a gait change as stroke amplitude and distance per stroke were reduced by 13 and 14%, respectively, compared with non-pregnant periods (1–24 months post-parturition). This was concomitant with a 62 and 44% reduction in mean and maximum swim speeds, respectively...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2010) 213 (14): 2507–2514.
Published: 15 July 2010
.... Hummingbirds made to fly in low-density air responded by moderately increasing wingbeat frequency and substantially increasing the wing stroke amplitude as compared with flight in normal air. There was little change in the number of spikes per EMG burst in the pectoralis major muscle between flight in normal...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2003) 206 (18): 3139–3147.
Published: 15 September 2003
... amplitude substantially and increased wingbeat frequency slightly. In the second experiment, we maintained constant air density but decreased oxygen partial pressure. Under these normodense but hypoxic conditions, hummingbirds did not alter stroke amplitude but instead reduced wingbeat frequency until...