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Keywords: stiffness
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Journal Articles
J Exp Biol jeb.242787.
Published: 24 August 2021
... are crucial in kinetic spring-mass analyses of running, where approximation of a runner's impact angle and calculation of leg stiffness require that input. Here, a new method is presented to approximate a runner's stance velocity via measurement of contact and flight times with the runner's average speed, leg...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2021) 224 (6): jeb232850.
Published: 18 March 2021
... derived and validated a time-dependent vGRF function characterized by four spring–mass parameters – stiffness, touchdown angle, leg length and contact time – using a sinusoidal approximation. Next, we compared the NLR-estimated spring–mass parameters with traditional calculations in runners. The mixed...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2020) 223 (11): jeb225482.
Published: 11 June 2020
..., we analysed the structure, mineral content and compressive stiffness of secondary bone from the cranial and caudal cortices of the white-tailed deer proximal humerus. We found significantly larger Haversian systems and canals in the cranial cortex but no significant difference in mineral content...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2019) 222 (6): jeb197905.
Published: 27 March 2019
... the spines of P. volitans to determine mechanical properties (Young's modulus, elastic energy storage and flexural stiffness). The short and recurved anal and pelvic spines are stiffer and resist bending more effectively than the long dorsal spines. In addition, mechanical properties differ along the length...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2018) 221 (24): jeb188318.
Published: 12 December 2018
...-radiographed to measure double cone proportion and apex angles, and were mechanically tested at three displacement rates to 4% strain. We determined the variation in toughness and stiffness of vertebral centra among shark species and ontogenetic stages, testing strain rates, and compared anterior and posterior...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2018) 221 (23): jeb189233.
Published: 04 December 2018
... fringes, and low stiffness and high elasticity when wet; it likely bends in the closed mouth when not used for filtration. Calculation of flexural modulus from stress/strain experiments shows that the balaenid baleen is slightly more flexible where it emerges from the gums and at its ventral terminus...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2018) 221 (4): jeb171777.
Published: 20 February 2018
... in response to hydrodynamic forces during swimming. Here, we developed an experimental setup to measure the elastic properties of caudal fins in vivo by applying micro-Newton forces to obtain bending stiffness and a tensional modulus. We detected overall bending moments of 1.5×10 −9 –4×10 −9 N m 2 along...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2018) 221 (4): jeb173047.
Published: 20 February 2018
... the result of a compromise between the increasing slenderness of the tibia and its increasing material stiffness. The use of an optimal radius to thickness ratio, a soft resilin-dominated core, and chitin fibres oriented in both longitudinal and circumferential directions are presumably additional strategies...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2017) 220 (9): 1634–1642.
Published: 01 May 2017
... of the Achilles at all contraction levels (10%, 20% and 30% of MVC; P <0.01). Calculations showed that force on the proximal tendon portion was ∼60% lower, stress ∼70% lower, stiffness ∼30% lower and Poisson's ratio 6-fold higher compared with those for the distal portion of the Achilles tendon. These marked...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2017) 220 (8): 1509–1515.
Published: 15 April 2017
..., the ATP cost was measured during the last 30 s of isometric contractions using an enzyme-coupled assay. Stiffness was calculated during a quick stretch–release cycle of 0.2% fibre length performed once the steady state had been reached after active shortening and during the purely isometric reference...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2017) 220 (6): 959–963.
Published: 15 March 2017
...Deeksha Seth; Brooke E. Flammang; George V. Lauder; James L. Tangorra ABSTRACT Knowledge about the stiffness of fish fins, and whether stiffness is modulated during swimming, is important for understanding the mechanics of a fin's force production. However, the mechanical properties of fins have...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2016) 219 (18): 2908–2919.
Published: 15 September 2016
... oscillatory data were quantitatively analyzed in Matlab using a custom-written program called MITlaos ( Ewoldt et al., 2007 , 2008a , b , 2009 ). The program calculates several quantitative descriptions in terms of viscoelastic bending stiffnesses, by analogy to the framework of LAOS ( Ewoldt et al., 2008b...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2016) 219 (9): 1311–1316.
Published: 01 May 2016
... but crucial deletion in the titin protein. Myofibrils from normal and mdm mice were stretched from sarcomere lengths of 2.5 to 6.0 μm. Actively stretched myofibrils from normal mice were stiffer and generated more force than passively stretched myofibrils at all sarcomere lengths. No increase in stiffness...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2015) 218 (19): 3128–3137.
Published: 01 October 2015
...Alex M. Wilks; Sarah R. Rabice; Holland S. Garbacz; Cailin C. Harro; Andrew M. Smith ABSTRACT The terrestrial slug Arion subfuscus produces a defensive secretion that is sticky and tough, despite being a dilute gel. It is unusual in having high stiffness for a gel, yet retaining the high...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2015) 218 (5): 694–702.
Published: 01 March 2015
.... Oscillatory frequency is proportional to the square root of stiffness, and we observed that mutants had lower active muscle stiffness in vitro . The lower tremor frequencies in mutants are consistent with reduced active muscle stiffness and suggest that titin affects the tuning of shivering frequency...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2014) 217 (10): 1775–1783.
Published: 15 May 2014
... and whole-bone responses to mechanical stimuli in growing and mature female mice at 6, 10 and 16 weeks of age. The effects of applied load on tibial morphology and stiffness were determined using microcomputed tomography and in vivo bone strains measured at the medial tibial midshaft during applied loading...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2014) 217 (5): 787–795.
Published: 01 March 2014
...) and vertical stiffness ( r =−0.65) and low footprint index (FPI, r =0.70), step frequency ( r =0.62) and external work ( r =0.60). About 50% of the increase in CoT during the stages of the competition was accounted for by changes in FPI, which represents a global evaluation of medio-lateral displacement...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2013) 216 (15): 2833–2842.
Published: 01 August 2013
...B. N. Nowroozi; E. L. Brainerd SUMMARY Whole-body stiffness has a substantial impact on propulsive wave speed during axial undulatory locomotion in fishes. The connective tissues of the vertebral column may contribute to body stiffness, but without mechanical and kinematic analysis it is unclear...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2012) 215 (12): 2135–2140.
Published: 15 June 2012
... fibres should show proportional force and stiffness depression, (2) force after shortening should not be lower than force before shortening, (3) stiffness following shortening should not be lower than stiffness before shortening and (4) force depression should decrease when the stress during shortening...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2012) 215 (9): 1502–1508.
Published: 01 May 2012
.... This paper presents the first measurements of fracture toughness for insect cuticle using a standard engineering approach. Our results show that the fracture toughness of cuticle in locust hind legs is 4.12 MPa m 1/2 and decreases with desiccation of the cuticle. Stiffness and strength of the tibia cuticle...