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Keywords: stick insect
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Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2014) 217 (18): 3242–3253.
Published: 15 September 2014
... efficiency of finding foothold by avoiding searching-movements in trailing legs. In stick insects, a ‘targeting mechanism’ has been described that guides foot-placement of hind- and middle legs according to the position of their leading ipsilateral leg. So far, this mechanism has been shown for standing and...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2012) 215 (24): 4255–4266.
Published: 15 December 2012
...Martyna Grabowska; Elzbieta Godlewska; Joachim Schmidt; Silvia Daun-Gruhn SUMMARY The analysis of inter-leg coordination in insect walking is generally a study of six-legged locomotion. For decades, the stick insect Carausius morosus has been instrumental for unravelling the rules and mechanisms...
Includes: Multimedia, Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2009) 212 (2): 194–209.
Published: 15 January 2009
...Matthias Gruhn; Lyuba Zehl; Ansgar Büschges SUMMARY In stick insects, walking is the result of the co-action of different pattern generators for the single legs and coordinating inter-leg influences. We have used a slippery surface setup to understand the role the local neuronal processing in the...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2008) 211 (7): 1021–1028.
Published: 01 April 2008
...Malcolm Burrows SUMMARY The stick insect Timema chumash belongs to a sub-order of the phasmids that is thought to have diverged early from other stick insects, and which is restricted to the southwest of North America. It jumps by rapidly extending the tibiae of both its hind legs simultaneously...
Includes: Multimedia, Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2006) 209 (11): 2199–2214.
Published: 01 June 2006
... changes in coordination between legs. Moreover, the unpredictable variety of real life situations implies that compensatory responses should be sensitive to the behavioural context of the animal. We have investigated the extent to which the compensatory response of a walking stick insect ( Carausius...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2005) 208 (12): 2237–2252.
Published: 15 June 2005
... behavioural transition do so at the same rate. The present study tests this assumption by analysing the sequence of kinematic events during turning of the stick insect Carausius morosus , and by measuring how the time courses of the changing parameters differ between legs. Turning was triggered reliably at a...
Includes: Multimedia, Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2005) 208 (12): 2253–2267.
Published: 15 June 2005
... walking, the coupling strength associated with these rules has never been measured experimentally. Generally coupling strength of the underlying mechanisms has been considered constant rather than context-dependent. The present study analyses stepping patterns of the stick insect Carausius morosus during...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2001) 204 (22): 3815–3828.
Published: 15 November 2001
...Harald Wolf; Ulrich Bässler; Roland Spieß; Rolf Kittmann SUMMARY The extremely slow return movements observed in stick insects (phasmids) after imposed changes in posture are termed catalepsy. In the literature, catalepsy is treated as a behavioural component of the twig mimesis observed in...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (1991) 157 (1): 87–99.
Published: 01 May 1991
...G. RADNIKOW; U. BÄSSLER The course of the common apodeme of the tripartite retractor unguis muscle is described for the stick insects Carausius morosus and Acrophylla wulfingii . This apodeme travels through the femoro-tibial joint well outside the axis of rotation of the joint, but movements of...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (1990) 151 (1): 133–160.
Published: 01 July 1990
...ANSGAR BÜSCHGES In the stick insect Carausius morosus (Phasmida) intracellular recordings were made from local nonspiking interneurones involved in the reflex activation of the extensor motoneurones of the femur-tibia joint during ramp-like stimulation of the transducer of this joint, the femoral...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (1989) 144 (1): 81–111.
Published: 01 July 1989
...ANSGAR BÜSCHGES The femoral chordotonal organ (ChO) of the right middle leg of the inactive stick insect Carausius morosus was stimulated by applying movements having a ramp-like time course, while recordings were made from local and interganglionic interneurones in the anterior ventral median part...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (1989) 143 (1): 373–388.
Published: 01 May 1989
...J. SCHMITZ; G. HAFELD In stick insects walking forwards or backwards, a treading-on-tarsus (TOT) reflex of the middle leg could be elicited by mechanical stimulation of the ipsilateral front leg tarsus. The probability of eliciting a TOT reflex in the middle leg depended on the phase of the...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (1988) 136 (1): 125–147.
Published: 01 May 1988
...ULRICH BÄSSLER A rampwise stretch of the femoral chordotonal organ is known often to elicit a response in the active decerebrate stick insect that is termed an ‘active reaction’, and which can be considered to represent part of the step cycle. During the first part of the response, the flexor motor...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (1987) 133 (1): 137–156.
Published: 01 November 1987
...G. WEILAND; U. T. KOCH In the stick insect Carausius momsus , the role of the chordotonal organ was investigated using a new experimental arrangement which artificially closes the femur-tibia control system. The chordotonal organ was stimulated during voluntary movements by applying trapezoidal...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (1985) 116 (1): 357–362.
Published: 01 May 1985
...H. CRUSE When a stick insect ( Carausius morosus ) walks on a treadwheel with one leg standing on a platform beside the wheel, this leg can be considered to perform a prolonged stance phase. To elicit a swing phase in this situation, both load and position must decline below definite threshold...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (1985) 116 (1): 301–311.
Published: 01 May 1985
...ULRICH BÄSSLER; EVA FOTH; GERHARD BREUTEL On a slippery surface the forelegs of a decapitated stick insect walk forwards and the hindlegs, backwards. Animals with only forelegs but that are otherwise intact walk forwards, whereas animals with only hindlegs walk mostly backwards. Usually when intact...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (1985) 116 (1): 343–355.
Published: 01 May 1985
...H. CRUSE In treadwheel walking, the front and middle legs of the stick insect ( Carausius morosus ) propel the wheel, while the hind legs exert very little force and can even decelerate the wheel. This result is compared with observations on the function of the legs in different walking situations...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (1985) 114 (1): 207–223.
Published: 01 January 1985
...T. Hofmann; U. T. Koch; U. Bässler The femoral chordotonal organ of the stick insect Cuniculina impigra Redtenbacher (Phasmida) can be stimulated precisely by moving the receptor apodeme. Single sensory units in the sensory nerve are recorded using glass microelectrodes. The units are classified...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (1985) 114 (1): 225–237.
Published: 01 January 1985
...T. Hofmann; U. T. Koch The femoral chordotonal organ of the stick insect Cuniculina impigra was stimulated by moving its apodeme with staircase-like waveforms having independently controllable acceleration and velocity values. Intracellular recordings were made of receptor units in the sensory...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (1984) 111 (1): 191–199.
Published: 01 July 1984
...U. BÄSSLER Autotomized legs of the stick insect Cuniculina impigra bend rapidly and rhythmically at the femur-tibia joint. These flexions occur at a frequency 1–6 Hz immediately after autotomy and decrease in frequency and amplitude with time. Each flexion is produced by a burst of 1–14 action...