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J Exp Biol (2004) 207 (24): 4291–4298.
Published: 15 November 2004
... of flight in a wind tunnel by four European starlings Sturnus vulgaris made using three independent techniques: heat transfer modelling, doubly labelled water (DLW)and mask respirometry. We based our heat transfer model on thermal images of the surface temperature of the birds and air flow past the body...
Includes: Supplementary data
J Exp Biol (2004) 207 (22): 3959–3968.
Published: 15 October 2004
... technique was used to measure the energy cost of short flights in the nectarivorous Palestine sunbird Nectarinia osea (mean mass 6.17±0.16 g, N =8)and the non-nectarivorous starling Sturnus vulgaris (mean mass 70.11±1.11 g, N =9). The technique was initially calibrated in five individuals for each species...
J Exp Biol (2001) 204 (19): 3311–3322.
Published: 1 October 2001
...S. Ward; U. Möller; J. M. V. Rayner; D. M. Jackson; D. Bilo; W. Nachtigall; J. R. Speakman SUMMARY We trained two starlings ( Sturnus vulgaris ) to fly in a wind tunnel whilst wearing respirometry masks. We measured the metabolic power ( P met ) from the rates of oxygen consumption and carbon...
J Exp Biol (1992) 164 (1): 1–18.
Published: 1 March 1992
...ANDREW A. BIEWENER; KENNETH P. DIAL; G. E. GOSLOW, JR. Force recordings of the pectoralis muscle of European starlings have been made in vivo during level flight in a wind tunnel, based on bone strain recordings at the muscle's attachment site on the humerus (deltopectoral crest). This represents...