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Keywords: speed
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Journal Articles
JEB: 100 years of discovery
J Exp Biol (2023) 226 (7): jeb245310.
Published: 6 April 2023
... determine form and function. Energetics Locomotion Modelling Musculoskeletal Phylogenetics Speed Small and large animals are fundamentally different. Their variation in size is linked to changes in body shape, physiology and locomotor biomechanics. For example, small mammals are crouched...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2020) 223 (20): jeb228460.
Published: 16 October 2020
.... We compared Argentine ant ( Linepithema humile ) workers in light versus darkness while traversing flat and uneven terrain. In darkness, ants reduced flat-ground walking speeds by only 5%. Similarly, the approach speed and time to cross a step obstacle were not significantly affected by lack...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2019) 222 (20): jeb204172.
Published: 23 October 2019
... frequency and cruising speed for individual whales spanning a threefold variation in body length, corresponding to an order of magnitude variation in estimated body mass. Our results showed that oscillatory frequency decreases with body length (∝length −0.53 ) while cruising speed remains roughly invariant...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
Journal Articles
Journal Articles
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2012) 215 (5): 774–784.
Published: 1 March 2012
... demands on locomotion. We examined the relationships among sprint speed, morphology and different types of substrate surfaces in species of lizards that exploit different structural habitats (arboreal, saxicolous, terrestrial and arenicolous) in a phylogenetic context. Our main goals were to assess which...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2011) 214 (24): 4151–4159.
Published: 15 December 2011
... encountered 80 N of drag at 1.7 m s –1 whereas that magnitude of drag was not encountered until speed doubled for females 18 months post-parturition. Indeed, drag coefficients based on frontal surface area were significantly greater during pregnancy ( C d,F =0.22±0.04) than at 18 months post-parturition ( C d...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2010) 213 (5): 694–706.
Published: 1 March 2010
... the movement of the centre of mass (COM) of 34 Asian elephants ( Elephas maximus ) was studied over their entire speed range of 0.4-5.0 m s −1 with force platforms. The mass-specific mechanical work required to maintain the movements of the COM per unit distance is ~0.2 J kg −1 m −1 (about 1/3 of the average...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2008) 211 (17): 2735–2751.
Published: 1 September 2008
...Lei Ren; Melanie Butler; Charlotte Miller; Heather Paxton; Delf Schwerda; Martin S. Fischer; John R. Hutchinson SUMMARY As the largest extant terrestrial animals, elephants do not trot or gallop but can move smoothly to faster speeds without markedly changing their kinematics, yet with a shift from...
Includes: Multimedia, Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2008) 211 (1): 138–149.
Published: 1 January 2008
...) analysis to analyse 486 sequences from five malinois (Belgian shepherd) dogs moving at a large range of speeds (from 0.4 to 10.0 m s –1 ) to compare symmetrical and asymmetrical gaits through kinematic and limb coordination parameters. Considerable continuity was observed in cycle characteristics,from walk...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2007) 210 (21): 3862–3872.
Published: 1 November 2007
... stopping and gripping. When moving downhill, snakes often slid continuously while grasping the perch to reduce their speed. Mean forward velocity decreased both with increased incline and with increased perch diameter, contrary to the beneficial effect of increased diameter on the speeds of lizards. Both...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2007) 210 (20): 3677–3688.
Published: 15 October 2007
... reorganization of joint architecture and asymmetric distribution of mineralized cuticle, the mantis shrimp's raptorial appendage offers a remarkable example of how structural and mechanical modifications can yield power amplification sufficient to produce speeds and forces at the outer known limits of biological...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2006) 209 (21): 4389–4397.
Published: 1 November 2006
... surface), from which the peak vertical force can be estimated. When an animal changes speed, these variables change at different proportions. Limited measurements of these variables and predictions of peak limb force have been undertaken for large mammals performing high-speed over-ground exercise...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2006) 209 (20): 4174–4184.
Published: 15 October 2006
...Justin J. Meager; Paolo Domenici; Alex Shingles; Anne Christine Utne-Palm SUMMARY We examined the effect of turbidity (0.5–14 beam attenuation m –1 ) and predator attack speed (150 and 296 cm s –1 ) on escape responses of juvenile cod Gadus morhua in the laboratory. We triggered escape responses...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2006) 209 (19): 3812–3827.
Published: 1 October 2006
... elephant locomotion is in some ways atypical of more familiar quadrupedal gaits. We analyzed the locomotor kinematics of over 2400 strides from 14 African and 48 Asian elephant individuals (body mass 116-4632 kg) freely moving over ground at a 17-fold range of speeds, from slow walking at 0.40 m s -1...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2003) 206 (6): 1085–1097.
Published: 15 March 2003
...A. Zeffer; U. M. Lindhe Norberg SUMMARY Muscle force production and speed of movement of a bone are not only highly dependent on muscle properties but also on the biomechanical arrangements of the musculoskeletal systems. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the leverages of a leg...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (1998) 201 (13): 2061–2070.
Published: 1 July 1998
... the horizontal. The falcon controlled its speed during the dives, rather than simply falling from the sky, and the dives had three phases. During the first (acceleration) phase, the falcon accelerated to speed limits between 52 and 58 m s −1 in the seven fastest dives, evidently with minimum drag, because its...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (1998) 201 (3): 403–414.
Published: 1 February 1998
...Vance A. Tucker ABSTRACT Some falcons, such as peregrines ( Falco peregrinus ), attack their prey in the air at the end of high-speed dives and are thought to be the fastest of animals. Estimates of their top speed in a dive range up to 157 m s −1 , although speeds this high have never been...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (1997) 200 (17): 2355–2361.
Published: 1 September 1997
...C. J. Pennycuick ABSTRACT Previously published field observations of the air speeds of 36 species of birds, all observed by the same method (ornithodolite), were compared with estimates of the corresponding minimum power speeds, calculated with a default body drag coefficient of 0.1. This value...