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Keywords: running
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Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2020) 223 (1): jeb199018.
Published: 06 January 2020
... cockroach muscle therefore serves as an example of the versatile control role a muscle can adopt. At steady state during running, this muscle typically dissipates a small amount of energy during the swing period of each stride ( Full et al., 1998 ). Its steady-state work is far below its capacity to either...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2018) 221 (17): jeb174425.
Published: 06 September 2018
... plantigrady and ability to stiffen the midfoot. We also show that several unique features of the human foot, including a spring-like longitudinal arch and short toes, are likely adaptations to long distance running. We use this framework to interpret the fossil record and argue that the human foot passed...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2018) 221 (15): jeb182303.
Published: 01 August 2018
... progression in acceleration, has proved valuable in the estimation of the metabolic cost of speed-changing gaits. However, its use with steep slopes requires extrapolation of the experimental cost versus gradient function for constant running speed, resulting in less-reliable estimates. The present study...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2018) 221 (10): jeb152538.
Published: 22 May 2018
... hindlimbs for bipedal terrestrial locomotion, for at least some part of their life history. Here, we review the scaling of avian striding bipedal gaits to explore how body mass and leg morphology influence walking and running. We collate literature data from 21 species, spanning a 2500× range in body mass...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2018) 221 (7): jeb177469.
Published: 06 April 2018
... bioenergetic differences between active and inactive individuals carry over to impact performance in a subsequent reproductive event and alter a female's reproductive outcome. Female mice that had access to a running wheel for a month before mating gave birth to a larger litter and weaned a heavier litter...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2016) 219 (16): 2416–2422.
Published: 15 August 2016
..., along with the performance of a range of locomotor activities, from running and climbing to jumping and swimming. These locomotor effects can impact on activities critical for survival and reproduction, including escaping predators, capturing prey and acquiring mates. In this Commentary, we first review...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2016) 219 (15): 2276–2288.
Published: 01 August 2016
...A. H. Dewolf; L. E. Peñailillo; P. A. Willems ABSTRACT When running on the level, muscles perform as much positive as negative external work. On a slope, the external positive and negative work performed are not equal. The present study analysed how the ratio between positive and negative work...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2015) 218 (15): 2472–2481.
Published: 01 August 2015
...Anthony G. Schache; Nicholas A. T. Brown; Marcus G. Pandy ABSTRACT We investigated how the human lower-limb joints modulate work and power during walking and running on level ground. Experimental data were recorded from seven participants for a broad range of steady-state locomotion speeds (walking...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2015) 218 (8): 1235–1243.
Published: 15 April 2015
...Glenna T. Clifton; Tyson L. Hedrick; Andrew A. Biewener ABSTRACT Few vertebrates run on water. The largest animals to accomplish this feat are western and Clark's grebes ( Aechmophorus occidentalis and Aechmophorus clarkii ). These birds use water running to secure a mate during a display called...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2015) 218 (7): 977–982.
Published: 01 April 2015
... of the two in-series hydraulic joints will be less coupled because the higher stride frequencies limit the time available for hemolymph flow. We elicited maximal running speeds at four ecologically relevant temperatures (15, 24, 31 and 40°C) in Texas Brown tarantulas ( Aphonopelma hentzi ). The...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2014) 217 (5): 735–742.
Published: 01 March 2014
... forelimb function has been proposed as a general feature of running with a sprawling posture and as benefiting sprawled postured animals by enhancing maneuvering and minimizing joint moments. Yet only a few species have been studied and thus the generality of differential limb function in running animals...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2013) 216 (24): 4530–4541.
Published: 15 December 2013
... declared. 5 12 2012 29 8 2013 © 2013. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd 2013 biomechanics running Periplaneta americana sensorimotor integration bio-inspired sensor robot Animals can directly control the acquisition of sensory information by using self...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2012) 215 (20): 3665–3671.
Published: 15 October 2012
... technique. The AT of the physically active individuals seems to be able to resist mechanical changes under physiological stress. We therefore suggest that natural loading, like in running, may not overstress the AT or predispose it to injury. In addition, decreased running economy, as well as altered foot...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2012) 215 (13): 2288–2300.
Published: 01 July 2012
... hindlimbs. However, few studies have examined the role of forelimbs in lizard locomotion. To characterize how the forelimbs and hindlimbs differentially respond to changes in substrate diameter and incline, we obtained three-dimensional high-speed video of green anoles ( Anolis carolinensis ) running on...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2012) 215 (8): 1331–1336.
Published: 15 April 2012
... exercise-induced eCB signaling following high-intensity endurance running. eCB signaling does not significantly increase following low-intensity walking in these taxa, and eCB signaling does not significantly increase in the non-cursorial ferrets following exercise at any intensity. This study provides the...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2012) 215 (2): 247–255.
Published: 15 January 2012
...Jeffrey P. Olberding; Lance D. McBrayer; Timothy E. Higham SUMMARY Bipedal running is common among lizard species, but although the kinematics and performance of this gait have been well characterized, the advantages in biologically relevant situations are still unclear. Obstacle negotiation is a...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2012) 215 (1): 75–84.
Published: 01 January 2012
...G. A. Cavagna; M. A. Legramandi; A. La Torre SUMMARY Step frequency and energy expenditure are greater in backward running than in forward running. The differences in the motion of the centre of mass of the body associated with these findings are not known. These differences were measured here on...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2011) 214 (10): 1685–1691.
Published: 15 May 2011
... ( Sceloporus woodi ), we compared how swing- and stance-phase muscles relate to maximum running speed and acceleration. We employed both a level and vertical trackway to elicit ecologically relevant locomotor performance. Six individuals were filmed at 250 frames s –1 in lateral view. Following performance...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2011) 214 (8): 1369–1378.
Published: 15 April 2011
... investigate the locomotor biomechanics of helmeted guinea fowl traversing slippery surfaces at variable running speeds (1.3–3.6 m s –1 ). Falls were circumvented when limb contact angles exceeded 70 deg, though lower angles were tolerated at faster running speeds (>3.0 m s –1 ). These prerequisites...
Includes: Multimedia, Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2011) 214 (3): 402–411.
Published: 01 February 2011
...David V. Lee SUMMARY Quadrupedal running on grades requires balancing of pitch moments about the center of mass (COM) while supplying sufficient impulse to maintain a steady uphill or downhill velocity. Here, trotting mechanics on a 15 deg grade were characterized by the distribution of impulse...
Includes: Supplementary data