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Keywords: power
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Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2021) 224 (3): jeb228221.
Published: 02 February 2021
... in conjunction with musculoskeletal simulations and a recently developed functional index-based approach to characterise the role of human lower-limb muscles. We found that in muscles that generate most of the mechanical power and work during cycling, greater crank torque induced shifts towards...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2020) 223 (16): jeb223743.
Published: 17 August 2020
..., shortening velocity and pennation angle change were greater during aquatic takeoffs than during terrestrial takeoffs because of the differences in knee motion. Nevertheless, we observed no significant differences in LG stress or work, but did see an increase in muscle power output during aquatic takeoffs...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2020) 223 (12): jeb207472.
Published: 26 June 2020
.... We quantified the mechanical power and work done by all structures distal to the hindfoot's center of mass (i.e. structures of the entire foot), using a unified deformable segment analysis ( Takahashi et al., 2012 ). This analysis captures the total mechanical contribution of the heel pad deformation...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2020) 223 (2): jeb213397.
Published: 27 January 2020
... of muscle speed. Muscle contraction Contractile velocity Twitch time Tension Power An organism's fitness and survival is directly affected by its ability to perform various behaviors effectively. Variations in feeding or escape performance, for instance, produce fitness gradients...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2018) 221 (19): jeb187369.
Published: 05 October 2018
... and high angles of attack (AoA). Although insects have continuously received attention from biologists and aerodynamicists, the high AoA operation in insect flight has not been clearly explained. Here, we used a theoretical blade-element model to examine the impact of wing inertia on the power...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2018) 221 (13): jeb163840.
Published: 06 July 2018
... force and power produced by increasing the demand on weight-supporting muscle. However, when normalised to body mass, muscle performance of obese individuals is reduced. Isolated muscle preparations show that obesity often leads to a decrease in force produced per muscle cross-sectional area, and power...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2018) 221 (7): jeb177600.
Published: 11 April 2018
...Tomer Urca; Gal Ribak ABSTRACT The distance a small insect moves through the air during a jump is limited by the launch velocity at take-off and by air resistance. The launch velocity is limited by the length of the jumping legs and the maximum power that the jump apparatus can provide for pushing...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2016) 219 (22): 3532–3543.
Published: 15 November 2016
...Bo Cheng; Bret W. Tobalske; Donald R. Powers; Tyson L. Hedrick; Yi Wang; Susan M. Wethington; George T.-C. Chiu; Xinyan Deng ABSTRACT The superior manoeuvrability of hummingbirds emerges from complex interactions of specialized neural and physiological processes with the unique flight dynamics of...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2016) 219 (9): 1369–1377.
Published: 01 May 2016
...Laura McFarlane; John D. Altringham; Graham N. Askew ABSTRACT Diurnal and seasonal increases in body mass and seasonal reductions in wing area may compromise a bird's ability to escape, as less of the power available from the flight muscles can be used to accelerate and elevate the animal's centre...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2015) 218 (18): 2856–2863.
Published: 01 September 2015
... well the contractile properties of skinned fibres reflect the properties of the muscle fibres in vivo . Here, we compare the mechanical performance of intact fibre bundles and skinned fibres from muscle of the same animals. This is the first such direct comparison. Maximum power and isometric force...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2015) 218 (2): 194–205.
Published: 15 January 2015
...Joseph E. Rupert; Jacob A. Rose; Jason M. Organ; Michael T. Butcher Scratch-digging mammals are commonly described as having large, powerful forelimb muscles for applying high force to excavate earth, yet studies quantifying the architectural properties of the musculature are largely unavailable...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2014) 217 (17): 3002–3005.
Published: 01 September 2014
... Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0 ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium provided that the original work is properly attributed. Hunt Jump Owl Power...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2011) 214 (14): 2354–2361.
Published: 15 July 2011
... extant biomechanical analogs for incremental adaptive stages in the evolutionary origin of flight. A primary assumption of the hypothesis is that work and power requirements from the primary downstroke muscle, the pectoralis, incrementally increase from shallow- to steep-angled terrestrial locomotion...
Includes: Multimedia, Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2011) 214 (5): 786–793.
Published: 01 March 2011
... 0, 7, 14 or 21% by means of intra-peritoneal injections of saline solution, and flights were recorded as animals flew upwards in a small enclosure. Using a model based on actuator disk theory, we estimated the mechanical power expended by the bats as they flew and separated that cost into different...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2010) 213 (16): 2788–2796.
Published: 15 August 2010
...Charlotte R. Morris; Frank E. Nelson; Graham N. Askew SUMMARY Little is known about how in vivo muscle efficiency, that is the ratio of mechanical and metabolic power, is affected by changes in locomotory tasks. One of the main problems with determining in vivo muscle efficiency is the large number...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2010) 213 (16): 2770–2780.
Published: 15 August 2010
...Charlotte R. Morris; Graham N. Askew SUMMARY In order to meet the varying demands of flight, pectoralis muscle power output must be modulated. In birds with pectoralis muscles with a homogeneous fibre type composition, power output can be modulated at the level of the motor unit ( via changes in...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2010) 213 (16): 2781–2787.
Published: 15 August 2010
...Charlotte R. Morris; Graham N. Askew SUMMARY There have been few comparisons between the relationship between the mechanical power requirements of flight and flight speed obtained using different approaches. It is unclear whether differences in the power–speed relationships reported in the...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2010) 213 (11): 1921–1929.
Published: 01 June 2010
...N. A. Curtin; F. Lou; R. C. Woledge SUMMARY The mechanical performance of red and white muscle fibres from dogfish was compared during a long series of contractions with sinusoidal movement or under isometric conditions at 12°C (normal in vivo temperature). Power output was measured during...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2010) 213 (3): 426–432.
Published: 01 February 2010
...R. Buchwald; R. Dudley SUMMARY Maximum vertical forces produced by flying animals can be difficult to identify unequivocally, but potentially indicate general limits to aerodynamic force and muscle power output. We used two methods (i.e. incremental addition of supplemental mass and asymptotic load...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2010) 213 (3): 487–492.
Published: 01 February 2010
...J. M. Wakeling; O. M. Blake; H. K. Chan SUMMARY The purpose of this study was to determine which features of muscle mechanics and muscle coordination affect the power output from a limb during locomotion. Eight subjects were tested while cycling at maximum exertion for 25 min on a stationary...