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Keywords: motor pattern
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Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2018) 221 (2): jeb165985.
Published: 16 January 2018
... a phylogenetically primitive and conserved triplet motor pattern consisting of: triplet I (balancing side: superficial masseter and medial pterygoid; working side: posterior temporalis), which reaches onset, peak and offset first; and triplet II (working side: superficial masseter and medial pterygoid; balancing...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2016) 219 (12): 1860–1865.
Published: 15 June 2016
...Benjamin M. Perlman; Miriam A. Ashley-Ross ABSTRACT Aquatic C -start escape responses in teleost fishes are driven by a well-studied network of reticulospinal neurons that produce a motor pattern of simultaneous contraction of axial muscle on the side of the body opposite the threatening stimulus...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2015) 218 (24): 3950–3961.
Published: 1 December 2015
...Alexandra M. Yarger; Wolfgang Stein ABSTRACT The mechanisms of rhythmic motor pattern generation have been studied in detail in vitro , but the long-term stability and sources of variability in vivo are often not well described. The crab stomatogastric ganglion contains the well-characterized...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2010) 213 (13): 2303–2309.
Published: 1 July 2010
... © 2010. 2010 Manduca sexta motor pattern kinematics insect locomotion In contrast with animals having hard skeletons, soft-bodied creatures are deformable, can perform precise movements in almost limitless orientations and can thereby access resources that are otherwise difficult...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2009) 212 (22): 3605–3611.
Published: 15 November 2009
... periodically with bursts of spikes in return stroke motor neurons. In preparations of the isolated crayfish central nervous system(CNS), the temporal structures of motor patterns expressed in the active state are similar to those expressed by the intact animal. These transitions can occur spontaneously...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2008) 211 (22): 3523–3528.
Published: 15 November 2008
...-mail: pcwainwright@ucdavis.edu ) 15 9 2008 © The Company of Biologists Limited 2008 2008 behavioral integration kinematics motor pattern Functional morphologists studying locomotion, feeding, respiration and other behaviors recognize a number of sources of variation in the movements...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2007) 210 (20): 3590–3600.
Published: 15 October 2007
... but none of the individual motor spikes appeared to be synchronous on the two sides. e-mail: mb135@hermes.cam.ac.uk 30 7 2007 © The Company of Biologists Limited 2007 2007 kinematics muscle motor pattern Leafhopper insects (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Cicadellidae) power...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2007) 210 (20): 3579–3589.
Published: 15 October 2007
.... This jumping performance required an energy output of 77 μJ, a power output of 28 mW and exerted a force of 19 mN, or 100 times its body mass. e-mail: mb135@hermes.cam.ac.uk 26 7 2007 © The Company of Biologists Limited 2007 2007 locomotion kinematics motor pattern muscle...
Includes: Multimedia, Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2003) 206 (6): 1035–1049.
Published: 15 March 2003
... around the V-shaped rim in the ventral tibia about 400 μm from the joint pivot( Fig. 2B-D ). * Author for correspondence (e-mail: mb135@hermes.cam.ac.uk ) 6 1 2002 © The Company of Biologists Limited 2003 2003 kinematics joint mechanics locomotion motor neuron motor pattern...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2002) 205 (11): 1519–1530.
Published: 1 June 2002
... velocities as high as 48° per ms. The short time available to accelerate the body indicates that the movements are not powered by direct muscle contractions and that there must be storage of elastic energy in advance. The motor patterns responsible for generating the necessary forces in the hind legs...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2002) 205 (2): 265–271.
Published: 15 January 2002
...Kenji Mizutani; Hiroto Ogawa; Junichi Saito; Kotaro Oka SUMMARY We investigated the function of octopamine (OA) as a motor pattern inducer in the earthworm Eisenia fetida . We used semi-intact preparations, consisting of 20 sequential segmental ganglia of the ventral nerve cord (VNC) together...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2001) 204 (20): 3471–3481.
Published: 15 October 2001
... than 200° ms –1 . The high velocities and the associated power are generated by a preceding storage of energy and its sudden release produced by a specific motor pattern and specialisations of the femoro-tibial joints. To understand the dynamics of these rapid movements and the interrelations between...
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J Exp Biol (1999) 202 (24): 3575–3586.
Published: 15 December 1999
...Hanno Fischer; Wolfram Kutsch ABSTRACT Despite detailed knowledge of the sensory–motor interactions during elevator muscle timing for the generation of a ‘functional’ flight motor pattern in flying locusts, there is little information about how a possible shift in the onset of elevator activity...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (1999) 202 (7): 867–880.
Published: 1 April 1999
... muscles by physical subdivision of pre-existing muscles. As a result, the number of adductor mandibulae muscles in different taxa varies from as few as two to as many as eight. We used electromyography (EMG) to quantify motor-pattern variation of adductor mandibulae muscles in four tetraodontiform species...
Journal Articles
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J Exp Biol (1998) 201 (23): 3167–3183.
Published: 1 December 1998
.... The mechanism of upper jaw protrusion in the guitarfish differs from that described in other elasmobranchs. Muscle function and motor pattern during feeding are similar in the plesiomorphic cranial muscles in the guitarfish and the spiny dogfish probably because of their shared ancestral morphology. Modulation...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (1997) 200 (16): 2197–2207.
Published: 15 August 1997
...Georg F. Rast; Peter Bräunig ABSTRACT Rhythmic activity was recorded from the mandibular motor nerves after treating isolated locust suboesophageal ganglia with the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine. The rhythmic motor pattern consisted of alternating bursts of activity in the antagonistic mandibular...