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Keywords: locomotion
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Journal Articles
J Exp Biol jeb.243625.
Published: 13 May 2022
... out of the shoulder-hip parasagittal plane. This is especially prominent in Tamandua (Xenarthra), which suggests they employ aspects of sprawling (e.g., lizard-like-) locomotion. Here, we test if tamanduas use sprawling forelimb kinematics, i.e., a largely immobile scapula with pronounced lateral...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2022) 225 (7): jeb243817.
Published: 19 April 2022
... and locomotion in sidewinder rattlesnakes ( Crotalus cerastes ). During sidewinding locomotion, a snake lifts sections of its body up and forward while other sections maintain static ground contact. We used high-speed video to quantify whole-animal speed and acceleration; the height to which body sections...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2022) 225 (6): jeb243104.
Published: 18 March 2022
... reveals that equally preferable gaits do not translate into energy minimization. Metabolic cost Gait Locomotion Motor control Two-alternative forced-choice Utility theory National Institutes of Health 5T32EB009406 R01NS063399 Fig. 2. Equally preferred step length–width...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2022) 225 (Suppl_1): jeb243235.
Published: 8 March 2022
... Gait Tetrapod Locomotion Evolution Comparative methods New York Institute of Technology College of Osteopathic Medicine Center for Biomedical Innovation A key aspect of how animals move is locomotor gait. Gait is defined as the cyclical pattern of limb movements used...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2022) 225 (Suppl_1): jeb243231.
Published: 8 March 2022
... frequency and length. Small-bodied crouched animals primarily regulate speed through changes in stride frequency, while large-bodied arboreal species modulate stride length. Allometry Locomotion Arboreal Posture Velocity Tetrapods New York Institute of Technology College of Osteopathic...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2022) 225 (Suppl_1): jeb243254.
Published: 8 March 2022
...James R. Usherwood ABSTRACT Considerable attention has been given to the spring-like behaviour of stretching and recoiling tendons, and how this can reduce the work demanded from muscle for a given loss–return cycling of mechanical energy during high-speed locomotion. However, even completely...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2022) 225 (Suppl_1): jeb243376.
Published: 8 March 2022
... fin locomotion in the bluegill sunfish Lepomis macrochirus . J. Exp. Biol. 189 , 133 - 161 . 10.1242/jeb.189.1.133 Gidmark , N. J. , Konow , N. , Lopresti , E. and Brainerd , E. L. ( 2013 ). Bite force is limited by the force-length relationship of skeletal muscle...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2022) 225 (1): jeb242305.
Published: 7 January 2022
... the free moments produced. These findings have implications for our understanding of avian locomotor modules (i.e. coordinated actions of the head–neck, hindlimbs and tail), the use of force couples in vertical locomotion, and the evolution of associated structures. Highlighted Article: Parrots...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2021) 224 (23): jeb243361.
Published: 9 December 2021
... and effective form of locomotion serving various actions in natural behaviour. Some of the most effective exponents of jumping, in terms of take-off velocities achieved, are found in the Auchenorrhyncha, a diverse group of hemipteran bugs containing the froghoppers (Cercopoidea), leafhoppers (Cicadellidae...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2021) 224 (23): jeb242990.
Published: 3 December 2021
...Masaya Iijima; V. David Munteanu; Ruth M. Elsey; Richard W. Blob ABSTRACT As animals increase in size, common patterns of morphological and physiological scaling may require them to perform behaviors such as locomotion while experiencing a reduced capacity to generate muscle force and an increased...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2021) 224 (22): jeb243040.
Published: 16 November 2021
... Locomotion Energetics Metabolic Spring University of Houston Historically, simple models have been instrumental for understanding how humans control the lifting and forward motion of the body's center of mass (COM) during walking. Simple models reduce the body to a point mass supported...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2021) 224 (21): jeb236679.
Published: 11 November 2021
... . Am. Zool. 38 , 703 - 717 . 10.1093/icb/38.4.703 Biewener , A. A. ( 2003 ). Animal Locomotion. Oxford : Oxford University Press . Blazevich , A. J. , Cannavan , D. , Coleman , D. R. and Horne , S. ( 2007 ). Influence of concentric and eccentric resistance...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2021) 224 (20): jeb242923.
Published: 20 October 2021
... and substantially increasing their gap-bridging performance. Kinematics Chrysopelea Biomechanics Locomotion National Science Foundation http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100000001 1351322 Animals use a wide variety of behaviors to cross gaps in the physical environment, including reaching...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2021) 224 (19): jeb242988.
Published: 6 October 2021
... to evaluate how animals adjust their locomotion to accommodate changes in water depth. Because drag from water might impose additional locomotor costs, wading animals might be expected to raise their feet above the water up to a certain point until such behaviours lead to awkward steps and are abandoned...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2021) 224 (19): jeb236604.
Published: 6 October 2021
... for dynamic locomotion ( Fig. 2 A). The small ground contact area would lead to high tissue pressure at impact even with a thick skin pad, the more so because a straight joint chain does not buffer impact energy. Maintaining the neutral MCPJ position would require constant muscle effort. Even more trivial...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2021) 224 (19): jeb242566.
Published: 29 September 2021
...Kui Ding; Libin Zhang; Xinhao Fan; Pengji Zhuo; Qiming Feng; Shuangyan Zhang; Xueying Guo; Xiang Liu ABSTRACT Neuropeptides in the SALMFamide family serve as muscle relaxants in echinoderms and may affect locomotion, as the motor behavior in sea cucumbers involves alternating contraction...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2021) 224 (18): jeb242964.
Published: 23 September 2021
... to be driving the evolution of head shape. Some caecilians are known to use a combination of hydrostatic and internal concertina locomotion to move underground and to burrow ( O'Reilly et al., 1997 ). These systems rely on the loose connection between the skin, associated with body wall muscles...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2021) 224 (18): jeb242787.
Published: 22 September 2021
.... mass and leg length or height), improving generalizability of spring–mass analyses. SLIP Horizontal force Impact angle Locomotion Spring–mass Stiffness The spring–mass model is commonly used to characterize the systemic bouncing behavior of running bodies ( Blickhan, 1989 ; McMahon...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2021) 224 (16): jeb242635.
Published: 26 August 2021
... acting through CB 1 R during early development, may be responsible for locomotor deficiencies. Summary: Perturbation of the endocannabinoid system in the first 24 h of development alters motor neuron development and locomotion in zebrafish. Cannabis CB 1 and CB 2 receptors Locomotion...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2021) 224 (16): jeb240440.
Published: 19 August 2021
... stride length – throughout hominin evolution. Locomotion Bipedal Chimpanzee Stride length Hominin National Science Foundation http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100000001 BCS-0935321 The human walking stride is generally characterized as having a low metabolic cost compared...
Includes: Supplementary data