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Keywords: incline
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Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2017) 220 (5): 807–813.
Published: 01 March 2017
... basic activation patterns are of a neural origin. We investigated the muscle synergies during incline and level walking to evaluate changes in the modular organization of neuromuscular control related to changes in the mechanical demands. Our results revealed five fundamental (not further factorizable...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2013) 216 (8): 1448–1457.
Published: 15 April 2013
...Cornelia Krause; Martin S. Fischer SUMMARY Arboreal substrates differ not only in diameter, but also in continuity and orientation. To gain more insight into the dynamics of small-branch locomotion in tetrapods we studied the veiled chameleon walking on inclined and declined perches of up to 60 deg...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2012) 215 (15): 2545–2550.
Published: 01 August 2012
... moderated their speed with slope ( P <0.05), travelling the fastest during level locomotion (2.0±0.1 cm s –1 , N =20) and increasingly slowly with increased gradient (both on an incline and a decline). C path varied significantly with slope, being lowest during level locomotion (646.0±51.2 J kg –1 m –1...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2011) 214 (15): 2544–2559.
Published: 01 August 2011
... differences in substrate orientation, three-dimensional kinematics were examined using biplanar videoradiography as the animals moved on 30 and 60 deg inclined branches. Our results revealed that to maintain stability and friction as well as balance during inclined branch locomotion, these species utilize...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2011) 214 (3): 402–411.
Published: 01 February 2011
... different from level values during uphill than downhill trotting, indicating that the limbs act more as levers on the incline. Differential limb function was evident in the extreme divergence of forelimb and hindlimb impulse angles, amplifying forelimb braking and hindlimb propulsive biases observed during...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2009) 212 (1): 32–41.
Published: 01 January 2009
...%. We compared rates of O 2 consumption and CO 2 production, exoskeleton mechanics, joint kinematics, and surface electromyography between unpowered and powered exoskeleton conditions. On steeper inclines, ankle exoskeletons delivered more average positive mechanical power ( P <0.0001;+0.37±0.03 W kg...
Includes: Multimedia, Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2008) 211 (7): 1120–1130.
Published: 01 April 2008
...: amberg@fas.harvard.edu ) 4 2 2008 © The Company of Biologists Limited 2008 2008 flight incline kinematics pigeon power While in flight, a bird often needs to adjust its altitude. Changing altitude may be necessary to land, forage, pursue prey, or to maneuver through the...
Includes: Multimedia, Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2008) 211 (6): 945–956.
Published: 15 March 2008
...K. J. Parsons; T. Pfau; M. Ferrari; A. M. Wilson SUMMARY During locomotion on an incline, mechanical work is performed to move an animal up the slope and increase the potential energy (PE) of the trunk and hence the centre of mass (CoM). Thus, at a given speed the total net mechanical work...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2008) 211 (6): 935–944.
Published: 15 March 2008
...K. J. Parsons; T. Pfau; A. M. Wilson SUMMARY During locomotion up an incline, power is required to elevate the centre of mass. This is provided when the animal's limbs are in contact with the ground. Measurements of stride timing variables from multiple limbs during high speed,over-ground...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2007) 210 (21): 3862–3872.
Published: 01 November 2007
...Henry C. Astley; Bruce C. Jayne SUMMARY Animals moving through arboreal habitats face several functional challenges, including fitting onto and moving on cylindrical branches with variable diameters and inclines. In contrast to lizards and primates, the arboreal locomotion of snakes is poorly...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2007) 210 (19): 3361–3373.
Published: 01 October 2007
...-mail: devitap@ecu.edu ) 18 7 2007 © The Company of Biologists Limited 2007 2007 gait joint power incline stair ramp walking Animal locomotion is a complex process that includes the generation and dissipation of mechanical energy (i.e. positive and negative work...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2004) 207 (20): 3507–3514.
Published: 15 September 2004
...Darren J. Dutto; Donald F. Hoyt; Edward A. Cogger; Steven J. Wickler SUMMARY Although the forces required to support the body mass are not elevated when moving up an incline, kinematic studies, in vivo tendon and bone studies and kinetic studies suggest there is a shift in forces from the fore-to...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2004) 207 (12): 2115–2131.
Published: 15 May 2004
...Lawrence C. Spezzano, Jr; Bruce C. Jayne SUMMARY Arboreal animals often move in habitats with dense vegetation, narrow perches and variable inclines, but effects of arboreal habitat structure on locomotor function are poorly understood for most animals. Several species of Anolis lizards, which have...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2004) 207 (2): 233–248.
Published: 15 January 2004
...Timothy E. Higham; Bruce C. Jayne SUMMARY Arboreal animals, especially lizards, often traverse three-dimensional networks of narrow perches with variable and steep inclines, but the effects of both incline and narrow surfaces on the locomotor movement and function of limbs are poorly understood...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2004) 207 (2): 249–261.
Published: 15 January 2004
...Timothy E. Higham; Bruce C. Jayne SUMMARY Arboreal animals often move on surfaces with variable and steep inclines,but the changes in hindlimb muscle activity in response to incline are poorly understood. Thus, we studied the hindlimb muscle activity in the arboreal specialist, Chamaeleo...