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Keywords: hovering
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Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2021) 224 (10): jeb230920.
Published: 27 May 2021
...Kajsa Warfvinge; L. Christoffer Johansson; Anders Hedenström ABSTRACT Hovering insects are divided into two categories: ‘normal’ hoverers that move the wing symmetrically in a horizontal stroke plane, and those with an inclined stroke plane. Normal hoverers have been suggested to support...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2015) 218 (9): 1444–1452.
Published: 01 May 2015
...) and became significantly more variable from beat to beat. Previous studies have shown that hummingbirds display statistically significant but modest increases in flapping frequency to increase force production during hovering (∼4–10% increase in reduced air density or up to 19% with added loads; Chai...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2011) 214 (17): 2832–2844.
Published: 01 September 2011
...Xiao Lei Mou; Yan Peng Liu; Mao Sun SUMMARY Most hovering insects flap their wings in a horizontal plane (body having a large angle from the horizontal), called `normal hovering'. But some of the best hoverers, e.g. true hoverflies, hover with an inclined stroke plane (body being approximately...
Includes: Multimedia, Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2010) 213 (13): 2273–2283.
Published: 01 July 2010
...Gang Du; Mao Sun SUMMARY We studied the effects of wing deformation on the aerodynamic forces of wings of hovering hoverflies by solving the Navier–Stokes equations on a dynamically deforming grid, employing the recently measured wing deformation data of hoverflies in free-flight. Three hoverflies...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2010) 213 (3): 426–432.
Published: 01 February 2010
... bumblebee flight hindwing hovering power The whole-body forces produced by volant animals potentially influence diverse features of flight biology, including the ability to avoid predators, to chase mates and evade suitors, and to carry nutritional resources. Data on extreme features of axial...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2009) 212 (20): 3313–3329.
Published: 15 October 2009
...Jiang Hao Wu; Yan Lai Zhang; Mao Sun SUMMARY When an insect hovers, the centre of mass of its body oscillates around a point in the air and its body angle oscillates around a mean value, because of the periodically varying aerodynamic and inertial forces of the flapping wings. In the present paper...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2008) 211 (13): 2014–2025.
Published: 01 July 2008
...Yanpeng Liu; Mao Sun SUMMARY The time courses of wing and body kinematics of three freely hovering droneflies ( Eristalis tenax ) were measured using 3D high-speed video,and the morphological parameters of the wings and body of the insects were also measured. The measured wing kinematics was used...
Includes: Multimedia, Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2008) 211 (8): 1221–1230.
Published: 15 April 2008
... study, we reveal for the first time the detailed three-dimensional (3-D) flow structures and evolution of the LEVs on a flapping wing in the hovering condition at high Reynolds number( Re =1624). This was accomplished by utilizing an electromechanical model dragonfly wing flapping in a water tank (mid...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2008) 211 (2): 239–257.
Published: 15 January 2008
...Hikaru Aono; Fuyou Liang; Hao Liu SUMMARY We present the first integrative computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study of near- and far-field aerodynamics in insect hovering flight using a biology-inspired, dynamic flight simulator. This simulator, which has been built to encompass multiple mechanisms...
Includes: Multimedia, Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2007) 210 (15): 2714–2722.
Published: 01 August 2007
...Mao Sun; Ji Kang Wang SUMMARY The longitudinal stabilization control of a hovering model insect was studied using the method of computational fluid dynamics to compute the stability and control derivatives, and the techniques of eigenvalue and eigenvector analysis and modal decomposition...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2006) 209 (24): 5005–5016.
Published: 15 December 2006
... of Re ranging from 160 to 3200. At very low Re of 160 (roughly the Re of hovering fruit fly), there was a small crescent-like region of negative-sign vorticity near the leading edge at a considerable distance from the wing. A focus with a loose structure was in this region ( Fig. 9A...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2005) 208 (3): 447–459.
Published: 01 February 2005
...Mao Sun; Yan Xiong SUMMARY The longitudinal dynamic flight stability of a hovering bumblebee was studied using the method of computational fluid dynamics to compute the aerodynamic derivatives and the techniques of eigenvalue and eigenvector analysis for solving the equations of motion...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2004) 207 (3): 417–425.
Published: 22 January 2004
...Michael E. Dillon; Robert Dudley SUMMARY The ability of orchid bees to generate vertical forces was evaluated using a load-lifting method that imposed asymptotically increasing loads during ascending flight, ultimately eliciting maximum forces while hovering. Among 11 orchid bee species varying...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2002) 205 (24): 3783–3792.
Published: 15 December 2002
...Jeffrey A. Walker SUMMARY This paper addresses the question, do the rotational forces in the hovering fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster reflect something different (the Magnus effect) or more of the same (circulatory-and-attached-vortex force)?The results of an unsteady blade-element model using...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2002) 205 (23): 3669–3677.
Published: 01 December 2002
...Robert Dudley; York Winter SUMMARY Existing estimates of flight energetics in glossophagine flower bats, the heaviest hovering vertebrate taxon, suggest disproportionately high expenditure of mechanical power. We determined wingbeat kinematics and mechanical power expenditure for one of the largest...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2002) 205 (16): 2325–2336.
Published: 15 August 2002
...Douglas L. Altshuler; Robert Dudley SUMMARY The hovering ability, rapidity of maneuvers and upregulated aerobic capacity of hummingbirds have long attracted the interest of flight biologists. The range of intra- and interspecific variation in flight performance among hummingbirds, however...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2001) 204 (11): 2021–2027.
Published: 01 June 2001
... increases hummingbird hovering performance when birds are simultaneously challenged aerodynamically. We measured the maximum duration of hovering flight while simultaneously monitoring the rate of oxygen consumption of ruby-throated hummingbirds ( Archilochus colubris ) in low-density heliox that was either...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (1985) 116 (1): 271–289.
Published: 01 May 1985
... + profile power)/power input decreases as sizedeclines. If efficiency of flight muscle = 0.2, the mechanical power output of hovering bees varies inversely with body mass from about 480 to 1130 W kg −1 of muscle. These values are 1.9 to 4.5 times greater than previous predictions of maximum mechanical power...