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Keywords: ground reaction force
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Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2022) 225 (7): jeb242795.
Published: 4 April 2022
... with ecological versus phylogenetic similarities. Ground reaction forces (GRFs) from individual limbs or fins indicated that the pectoral appendages of each taxon had distinct patterns of force production, but GRFs from the hindlimbs were comparable between the salamander species. The rate at which force...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2022) 225 (4): jeb243080.
Published: 22 February 2022
... (VPP) concept introduced a new virtual pendulum model to the human balance control paradigm by analyzing the ground reaction forces (GRFs) in the body coordinate frame. This paper presents novel VPP-based analyses of the postural stability of human running in 3D space. We demonstrate the relationship...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2021) 224 (23): jeb242990.
Published: 3 December 2021
... knee. Normalized peak joint moments reflected these postural patterns, with shoulder and hip moments imposed by the ground reaction force showing relatively greater magnitudes in the smallest individuals. Thus, as larger alligators use more upright posture, they incur relatively smaller joint moments...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2019) 222 (7): jeb188748.
Published: 3 April 2019
... to leg kinematics (movements) and leg dynamics (forces, torques). Here, we studied these parameters in hindlegs of stick insects ( Carausius morosus ) during level and uphill/downhill (±45 deg) walking, using a combination of electromyography, 3D motion capture and ground reaction force measurements. We...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2019) 222 (5): jeb189258.
Published: 7 March 2019
...: In accelerated sprint running over 50 m, work done at every step mainly consists of that during the propulsive phase in the horizontal anterior–posterior direction. 50 m force plate system Ground reaction force Propulsive and braking phases Positive and negative work Among human locomotive...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2018) 221 (15): jeb180687.
Published: 13 August 2018
... with a force plate at the center to measure their ground reaction forces and gait parameters. The location of their center of mass was also quantified using a force plate and bi-planar x-ray and found to be further anterior in the domestic strain. The domestic turkeys locomoted across a lower range of speeds...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2017) 220 (9): 1618–1625.
Published: 1 May 2017
... of the desert ant Cataglyphis fortis together with their ground reaction forces and weight-specific leg impulses for level locomotion and on moderate (±30 deg) and steep (±60 deg) slopes in order to understand mechanical functions of individual legs during inclined locomotion. There were three main findings...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2014) 217 (21): 3891–3897.
Published: 1 November 2014
... loss and long-term regeneration for the first time by measuring morphology, 3D kinematics and ground reaction forces (GRFs) in the leopard gecko Eublepharis macularius . Tail autotomy resulted in a 13% anterior shift in the center of mass (CoM), which only partially recovered after full regeneration...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2014) 217 (20): 3742–3747.
Published: 15 October 2014
... and motor control of landing given their ability to land consistently during bouts of continuous hopping. Previous studies in anurans have shown that ground reaction forces (GRFs) during landing are significantly higher compared with takeoff and can potentially impart large torques about the center of mass...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2014) 217 (13): 2358–2370.
Published: 1 July 2014
... the ground reaction forces of single legs utilising a self-developed test site. Our findings show that the animals used the same gait dynamics across a wide speed range without dissolving the tripodal stride pattern. To achieve higher velocities, the ants proportionally increased stride length and stepping...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2014) 217 (5): 735–742.
Published: 1 March 2014
... with sprawled postures is unknown. We measured the limb lengths of seven species of lizard and their single-limb three-dimensional ground reaction forces during high-speed running. We found that all species relied on the hindlimb for producing accelerative forces. Braking forces were forelimb dominated in four...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2013) 216 (7): 1338–1349.
Published: 1 April 2013
... leading leg of gallop GRF h horizontal ground reaction force GRFs ground reaction forces GRF v vertical ground reaction force G trail trailing leg of gallop HL 1 power absorption by the hip extensors of the leading leg HL 2 power generation by the hip extensors...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2011) 214 (3): 402–411.
Published: 1 February 2011
... at the COM, shoulder or pelvis. Whole body and individual limb ground reaction forces, as well as spatiotemporal step parameters, were measured during downhill and uphill trotting. Deviations from steady-speed locomotion were determined by the net impulse angle and accounted for in the statistical model...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2009) 212 (15): 2426–2435.
Published: 1 August 2009
...Lars Reinhardt; Tom Weihmann; Reinhard Blickhan SUMMARY The biomechanics of running in small animals have remained poorly characterized because of the difficulty of recording three-dimensional ground reaction forces. Available techniques limit investigations to animals with a body mass above 1 g...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2008) 211 (7): 1087–1092.
Published: 1 April 2008
...John K. De Witt; R. Donald Hagan; Ronita L. Cromwell SUMMARY The addition of inertia to exercising astronauts could increase ground reaction forces and potentially provide a greater health benefit. However,conflicting results have been reported regarding the adaptations to additional mass (inertia...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2006) 209 (1): 66–77.
Published: 1 January 2006
...Sandra Nauwelaerts; Peter Aerts SUMMARY Anurans use a saltatorial (jumping) mode of locomotion. A jumping cycle can be divided into four subphases: propulsion, flight, landing and recovery. We studied the landing phase during locomotion in Rana esculenta by measuring the ground reaction forces...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2006) 209 (1): 171–187.
Published: 1 January 2006
... of the ground reaction force(GRF) impulse, respectively. In most cases, the muscles of the limb either produced or absorbed energy during the response, as indicated by net changes in COM energy ( E com ). The limb likely begins stance in a more retracted, extended position due to the 26 ms delay in ground...
Includes: Multimedia, Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2004) 207 (21): 3639–3648.
Published: 1 October 2004
...T. H. Witte; K. Knill; A. M. Wilson SUMMARY Measurement of peak vertical ground reaction force (GRFz) from multiple limbs simultaneously during high-speed, over-ground locomotion would enhance our understanding of the locomotor mechanics of cursorial animals. Here, we evaluate the accuracy...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2004) 207 (20): 3507–3514.
Published: 15 September 2004
... than on the level, but duty factor for both limbs was similar under both conditions. Duty factor decreased slightly with increased speed for the hindlimb on the level, and the corresponding small, predicted increase in peak vertical force could not be detected statistically. ground reaction force...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2004) 207 (4): 667–674.
Published: 1 February 2004
... to the total work by four joints of the hind limb were determined for a jump. It was hypothesized that the hip and ankle joints would have extensor moments performing positive work, while the knee would have a flexor moment and perform negative work during the jump. Ground reaction forces and sagittal plane...