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Keywords: ground reaction force
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Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2019) 222 (7): jeb188748.
Published: 03 April 2019
... leg kinematics (movements) and leg dynamics (forces, torques). Here, we studied these parameters in hindlegs of stick insects ( Carausius morosus ) during level and uphill/downhill (±45 deg) walking, using a combination of electromyography, 3D motion capture and ground reaction force measurements. We...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2019) 222 (5): jeb189258.
Published: 07 March 2019
... ). Relationships between ground reaction force impulse and kinematics of sprint-running acceleration . J. Appl. Biomech.   21 , 31 - 43 . 10.1123/jab.21.1.31 Kawamori , N. , Nosaka , K. and Newton , R. U. ( 2013 ). Relationships between ground reaction impulse and sprint acceleration...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2018) 221 (15): jeb180687.
Published: 13 August 2018
... force plate at the center to measure their ground reaction forces and gait parameters. The location of their center of mass was also quantified using a force plate and bi-planar x-ray and found to be further anterior in the domestic strain. The domestic turkeys locomoted across a lower range of speeds...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2017) 220 (9): 1618–1625.
Published: 01 May 2017
... the desert ant Cataglyphis fortis together with their ground reaction forces and weight-specific leg impulses for level locomotion and on moderate (±30 deg) and steep (±60 deg) slopes in order to understand mechanical functions of individual legs during inclined locomotion. There were three main...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2014) 217 (21): 3891–3897.
Published: 01 November 2014
... loss and long-term regeneration for the first time by measuring morphology, 3D kinematics and ground reaction forces (GRFs) in the leopard gecko Eublepharis macularius . Tail autotomy resulted in a 13% anterior shift in the center of mass (CoM), which only partially recovered after full regeneration of...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2014) 217 (20): 3742–3747.
Published: 15 October 2014
... motor control of landing given their ability to land consistently during bouts of continuous hopping. Previous studies in anurans have shown that ground reaction forces (GRFs) during landing are significantly higher compared with takeoff and can potentially impart large torques about the center of mass...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2014) 217 (13): 2358–2370.
Published: 01 July 2014
... ground reaction forces of single legs utilising a self-developed test site. Our findings show that the animals used the same gait dynamics across a wide speed range without dissolving the tripodal stride pattern. To achieve higher velocities, the ants proportionally increased stride length and stepping...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2014) 217 (5): 735–742.
Published: 01 March 2014
... with sprawled postures is unknown. We measured the limb lengths of seven species of lizard and their single-limb three-dimensional ground reaction forces during high-speed running. We found that all species relied on the hindlimb for producing accelerative forces. Braking forces were forelimb dominated...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2013) 216 (7): 1338–1349.
Published: 01 April 2013
... metabolic cost energetics ground reaction force kinematics joint moments joint power work Locomotion is an important aspect of human life. For aerobic, steady-state locomotion, people subconsciously select locomotion patterns that are most economical in terms of energy usage so that energy...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2011) 214 (3): 402–411.
Published: 01 February 2011
... COM, shoulder or pelvis. Whole body and individual limb ground reaction forces, as well as spatiotemporal step parameters, were measured during downhill and uphill trotting. Deviations from steady-speed locomotion were determined by the net impulse angle and accounted for in the statistical model. The...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2009) 212 (15): 2426–2435.
Published: 01 August 2009
...Lars Reinhardt; Tom Weihmann; Reinhard Blickhan SUMMARY The biomechanics of running in small animals have remained poorly characterized because of the difficulty of recording three-dimensional ground reaction forces. Available techniques limit investigations to animals with a body mass above 1 g...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2008) 211 (7): 1087–1092.
Published: 01 April 2008
...John K. De Witt; R. Donald Hagan; Ronita L. Cromwell SUMMARY The addition of inertia to exercising astronauts could increase ground reaction forces and potentially provide a greater health benefit. However,conflicting results have been reported regarding the adaptations to additional mass (inertia...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2006) 209 (1): 66–77.
Published: 01 January 2006
...Sandra Nauwelaerts; Peter Aerts SUMMARY Anurans use a saltatorial (jumping) mode of locomotion. A jumping cycle can be divided into four subphases: propulsion, flight, landing and recovery. We studied the landing phase during locomotion in Rana esculenta by measuring the ground reaction forces...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2006) 209 (1): 171–187.
Published: 01 January 2006
... the ground reaction force(GRF) impulse, respectively. In most cases, the muscles of the limb either produced or absorbed energy during the response, as indicated by net changes in COM energy ( E com ). The limb likely begins stance in a more retracted, extended position due to the 26 ms delay in...
Includes: Multimedia, Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2004) 207 (21): 3639–3648.
Published: 01 October 2004
...T. H. Witte; K. Knill; A. M. Wilson SUMMARY Measurement of peak vertical ground reaction force (GRFz) from multiple limbs simultaneously during high-speed, over-ground locomotion would enhance our understanding of the locomotor mechanics of cursorial animals. Here, we evaluate the accuracy of...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2004) 207 (20): 3507–3514.
Published: 15 September 2004
... increased ground reaction force( McGuigan and Wilson, 2003 ),we hypothesized that there will be smaller forces acting on the forelimb and increased forces acting on the hindlimb. Additionally, we asked whether these changes in force would produce concomitant changes in the temporal stride characteristics...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2004) 207 (4): 667–674.
Published: 01 February 2004
... total work by four joints of the hind limb were determined for a jump. It was hypothesized that the hip and ankle joints would have extensor moments performing positive work, while the knee would have a flexor moment and perform negative work during the jump. Ground reaction forces and sagittal plane...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2004) 207 (3): 553–563.
Published: 22 January 2004
...Jeffrey S. Willey; Audrone R. Biknevicius; Stephen M. Reilly; Kathleen D. Earls SUMMARY Crocodilians tow their large muscular tail behind them during terrestrial bouts when they high walk (a walking trot). Analysis of ground reaction forces in the American alligator ( Alligator mississippiensis...