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Keywords: glutamate
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Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2021) 224 (9): jeb234344.
Published: 10 May 2021
... tachypnea in heat) and heat loss index (cutaneous vasomotion) in 1 week old chicken exposed to neutral (31°C), cold (26°C) and hot (36°C) conditions. Intra-medullary raphe antagonism of NMDA glutamate (AP5; 0.5, 5 mmol l −1 ) and GABA A (bicuculline; 0.05, 0.5 mmol l −1 ) receptors reduced T b of chicks...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
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J Exp Biol (2019) 222 (11): jeb195354.
Published: 11 June 2019
... barrages of low-amplitude discharges (chirps). Previous studies in Gymnotiformes have shown that electric signal diversity is based on the segregation of descending synaptic inputs to pacemaker or relay cells and differential activation of the neurotransmitter receptors –for glutamate or γ-aminobutyric...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2013) 216 (15): 2843–2857.
Published: 1 August 2013
... SLC6 glutamate B 0,− system dauer embryonic arrest amphid sensory neurons ASI ASK ADF snf-5 transceptor The set of essential amino acids is very similar across animals. Except for some specific additions, it includes ~50% of the proteinogenic amino acids that utilize complex...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2010) 213 (13): 2310–2321.
Published: 1 July 2010
... chromatography–mass spectrometry (HPLC–MS) analysis, immunocytochemistry and pharmacological manipulations, we tested the role of the diffusible amino acids glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and a short-lived diffusible gas, nitric oxide (NO), in triggering or modulating contractions in Ephydatia muelleri...
Includes: Multimedia, Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2010) 213 (13): 2343–2353.
Published: 1 July 2010
...L. A. Sanderson; P. A. Wright; J. W. Robinson; J. S. Ballantyne; N. J. Bernier SUMMARY Glutamine synthetase (GSase), the enzyme that catalyses the conversion of glutamate and ammonia to glutamine, is present at high levels in vertebrate brain tissue and is thought to protect the brain from elevated...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2010) 213 (12): 2104–2115.
Published: 15 June 2010
... agonists tested, only l -glutamate invoked syzygial destabilisation, as did its analogues l -aspartate, α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA) and kainate, but not l -(+)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate ( l -AP4) or N -methyl- d -aspartate (NMDA). The implication that l -glutamate stimulates...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2009) 212 (23): 3828–3836.
Published: 1 December 2009
..., it was non-ureotelic and non-ureoosmotic, acting mainly as an osmoconformer with its plasma osmolality, [Na + ] and [Cl − ] comparable to those of the external medium. There were significant increases in the content of several free amino acids (FAAs), including glutamate, glutamine and glycine, in muscle...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2004) 207 (26): 4663–4677.
Published: 15 December 2004
.... The heartbeat was activated by application of glutamate, serotonin,dopamine, octopamine or acetylcholine, which were applied to the heart by perfusion into an organ bath. Joro-spider toxin (JSTX) blocked myocardial excitatory junctional potentials evoked by the cardiac ganglion. Neuronal cell bodies...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2004) 207 (18): 3131–3139.
Published: 15 August 2004
.... * Author for correspondence (e-mail: g.e.nilsson@bio.uio.no ) 12 3 2004 © The Company of Biologists Limited 2004 2004 anoxia hypoxia ischemia Carassius Hemiscyllium coral reef GABA glutamate Among vertebrates, those breathing water show the highest biodiversity...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2003) 206 (14): 2473–2486.
Published: 15 July 2003
... activity was expressed as μmol γ-glutamyl hydroxamate formed min -1 g -1 wet mass tissue. Freshly prepared glutamic acid monohydroxamate solution was used as a standard for comparison. The activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT; EC, which catalyses alanine degradation, and aspartate...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2003) 206 (7): 1251–1259.
Published: 1 April 2003
...J. Turesson; L. Sundin SUMMARY Glutamate microinjected into the vagal sensory area in the medulla produces cardiorespiratory responses mimicking oxygen chemoreflexes in fish. Here we directly investigate whether these reflexes are dependent on the ionotropic N -methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2003) 206 (5): 867–876.
Published: 1 March 2003
...L. Sundin; J. Turesson; E. W. Taylor SUMMARY Glutamate is a major neurotransmitter of chemoreceptor and baroreceptor afferent pathways in mammals and therefore plays a central role in the development of cardiorespiratory reflexes. In fish, the gills are the major sites of these receptors...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2003) 206 (3): 431–443.
Published: 1 February 2003
... nerve alone. The effects of candidate neurohormones on cardioarterial valves were examined by measuring the pressure in each artery at which haemolymph flows out of the heart through the valve. Serotonin, octopamine, norepinephrine, glutamate (Glu) and proctolin constricted the cardioarterial valves...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2002) 205 (17): 2605–2613.
Published: 1 September 2002
...Richard B. Gardiner; Kyrre Ullensvang; Niels C. Danbolt; Stanley Caveney; B. Cameron Donly SUMMARY Glutamate functions as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system(CNS) and neuromuscular junctions in insects. High-affinity glutamate transporters are responsible for keeping the resting levels...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2002) 205 (1): 91–100.
Published: 1 January 2002
... species have evolved many different strategies to deal with nitrogenous wastes when on land. *Author for correspondence (e-mail: patwrigh@uoguelph.ca ) 22 10 2001 © The Company of Biologists Limited 2002 2002 urea air-tolerant teleost amino acid glutamine glutamate...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (1998) 201 (20): 2833–2842.
Published: 15 October 1998
... neurones send their axons onto the cardiac muscle, where they form axon terminals bearing varicosities. All the CG neurones and their processes exhibited glutamate-like immunoreactivity. The cardiac muscle showed depolarizing membrane potential responses to glutamate applied focally to sites close to axon...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (1997) 200 (23): 3043–3054.
Published: 1 December 1997
... is consistent with their containing L-glutamate (L-Glu). Usually there is one nerve on each muscle containing 95 nm diameter electron-dense vesicles that are not organised into synapses. Such vesicles, whose appearance is consistent with their containing serotonin (5-HT), are never found co-localised...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (1997) 200 (22): 2913–2917.
Published: 1 November 1997
... from the increased intracellular adenosine concentration caused by the breakdown of intracellular ATP. Increases in the levels of extracellular glutamate and GABA do not occur until 1–2 h after ATP depletion. This response is quite unlike that recorded for other vertebrates, anoxia-tolerant or anoxia...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (1997) 200 (2): 269–286.
Published: 1 January 1997
... transport protein D2/NBAT (system b 0+ ) and the Na + -and K + -dependent neuronal and epithelial high-affinity glutamate transporter EAAC1 (system X − AG ). A detailed characterization of these proteins has provided new information on transport characteristics and mechanisms for coupling to different...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (1995) 198 (8): 1701–1710.
Published: 1 January 1995
...W.-G. Ocker; B. Hedwig; N. Elsner ABSTRACT The influence of neurotransmitters and neuroactive substances on stridulatory behaviour was analysed in two species of acridid grasshoppers ( Omocestus viridulus and Chorthippus mollis ). Acetylcholine, octopamine, γ-aminobutyric acid and glutamate were...