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Keywords: gait
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Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2021) 224 (6): jeb232850.
Published: 18 March 2021
...Geoffrey T. Burns; Richard Gonzalez; Ronald F. Zernicke ABSTRACT Runners are commonly modeled as spring–mass systems, but the traditional calculations of these models rely on discrete observations during the gait cycle (e.g. maximal vertical force) and simplifying assumptions (e.g. leg length...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2021) 224 (5): jeb228296.
Published: 09 March 2021
... empirical MOI were not reported. It was also unclear whether MOI affects gait energetics at slow speeds. Here, I show that a particular normalization of the pitch moment of inertia (the Murphy number) has opposite effects on walking and running energetics. During walking, simultaneous forelimb and hindlimb...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2021) 224 (2): jeb225532.
Published: 15 January 2021
...Reinhard Blickhan; Emanuel Andrada; Eishi Hirasaki; Naomichi Ogihara ABSTRACT Across a wide range of Froude speeds, non-human primates such as macaques prefer to use grounded and aerial running when locomoting bipedally. Both gaits are characterized by bouncing kinetics of the center of mass. In...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2020) 223 (14): jeb220319.
Published: 30 July 2020
... properties of the substrate on which they crawl and adjust their behavior to match those properties. Previous work on caterpillar locomotion has concentrated on major gaits such as inching and crawling or alternative movements such as ballistic rolling and lifeline climbing ( Brackenbury, 1996 , 1997...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2020) 223 (14): jeb224360.
Published: 28 July 2020
... hypothesis for the gaits of quadrupedal mammals . J. Zool . 201 , 135 - 152 . 10.1111/j.1469-7998.1983.tb04266.x Barak , M. M. , Sherratt , E. and Lieberman , D. E. ( 2017 ). Using principal trabecular orientation to differentiate joint loading orientation in the 3rd metacarpal...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2020) 223 (13): jeb224113.
Published: 01 July 2020
...Peter C. Raffalt; Jenny A. Kent; Shane R. Wurdeman; Nick Stergiou ABSTRACT During locomotion, humans change gait mode between walking and running as locomotion speed is either increased or decreased. Dynamical systems theory predicts that the self-organization of coordinated motor behaviors...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2019) 222 (24): jeb198226.
Published: 18 December 2019
... applied a novel, high-resolution bio-logging tag (ITAG) to seven veined squid, Loligo forbesii , in a controlled experimental environment to quantify their short-term (24 h) behavioral patterns. Tag accelerometer, magnetometer and pressure data were used to develop automated gait classification algorithms...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2019) 222 (17): jeb202895.
Published: 03 September 2019
... remaining energy is, in a sense, wasted. The majority of this wasted energy is expended to support the bodyweight and redirect the center of mass during the stance phase of gait. An order of magnitude less energy is expended to brake and accelerate the swinging leg. Accordingly, most devices designed to...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2019) 222 (14): jeb202093.
Published: 16 July 2019
... Dieën , J. H. and Bruijn , S. M. ( 2016 ). Effects of constrained trunk movement on frontal plane gait kinematics . J. Biomech.   49 , 3085 - 3089 . 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2016.07.015 Arvin , M. , Hoozemans , M. J. M. , Pijnappels , M. , Duysens , J. , Verschueren , S...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2019) 222 (13): jeb197228.
Published: 09 July 2019
...Andrew K. Yegian; Yanish Tucker; Stephen Gillinov; Daniel E. Lieberman ABSTRACT Stereotypically, walking and running gaits in humans exhibit different arm swing behavior: during walking, the arm is kept mostly straight, while during running, the arm is bent at the elbow. The mechanism for this...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2019) 222 (10): jeb198325.
Published: 23 May 2019
... their gait mechanics when walking on surfaces of variable compliance. From experiments on human subjects, interpreted through spring–mass models, it is clear that leg stiffness can be modulated in response to substrate compliance. For example, McMahon and Greene (1979) demonstrated that the...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2018) 221 (24): jeb178897.
Published: 10 December 2018
... Dynamic and kinematic data are available from figshare: https://figshare.com/s/10691e3dc6e9612017ee . Software for data processing are available on request from the corresponding author ( reinhard.blickhan@uni-jena.de ). References Alexander , R. M. ( 1989 ). Optimization and gaits in the...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2018) 221 (22): jeb189142.
Published: 16 November 2018
...://www.biologists.com/user-licence-1-1/ Summary: A simple stability-based modeling approach can explain why walking insects use different leg coordination patterns in a speed-dependent way. Motor control Locomotion Insect walking Gait Walking is an important behavior for most terrestrial...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2018) 221 (18): jeb174268.
Published: 25 September 2018
... certain gaits can enable efficient, stable locomotion; however, switching gaits requires complex information flow between and coordination of an animal's limbs. We show here that upon losing two legs, spiders can switch to a novel, more statically stable gait, or use temporal adjustments without a gait...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2018) 221 (11): jeb168773.
Published: 12 June 2018
... specific known flow-adaptive behaviours such as Kármán gaiting or entraining. Therefore, fish in high-turbulence flow may take advantage of the high variability in turbulent energy through time. These results suggest that swimming behaviour and energetics measured in the lab in straightened flow, typical...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2017) 220 (22): 4252–4260.
Published: 15 November 2017
....00253.2013 Farris , D. J. and Sawicki , G. S. ( 2012 ). Human medial gastrocnemius force–velocity behavior shifts with locomotion speed and gait . Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.   109 , 977 - 982 . 10.1073/pnas.1107972109 Farris , D. J. , Trewartha , G. , McGuigan , M. P. and...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2017) 220 (22): 4242–4251.
Published: 15 November 2017
...Kara L. Feilich ABSTRACT Comparative studies of fish swimming have been limited by the lack of quantitative definitions of fish gaits. Traditionally, steady swimming gaits have been defined categorically by the fin or region of the body that is used as the main propulsor and named after major fish...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2017) 220 (11): 2082–2095.
Published: 01 June 2017
... Series elastic element Ankle foot orthosis Gait Musculoskeletal modelling The plantarflexor muscle–tendon units seem tuned for near-optimal efficiency and power production during unassisted locomotion. During normal walking, the ankle plantarflexor muscles produce force nearly isometrically...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2017) 220 (10): 1864–1874.
Published: 15 May 2017
...Simon Wilshin; Michelle A. Reeve; G. Clark Haynes; Shai Revzen; Daniel E. Koditschek; Andrew J. Spence ABSTRACT Legged animals utilize gait selection to move effectively and must recover from environmental perturbations. We show that on rough terrain, domestic dogs, Canis lupus familiaris , spend...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2017) 220 (7): 1322–1329.
Published: 01 April 2017
..., and they produce little net work in the frontal plane despite relatively high forces. Inverse dynamics Plantigrade Mammal Mediolateral Gait During locomotion, muscles are required to balance external moments produced by ground reaction forces. Because of the scaling relationship of...