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Keywords: fracture
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Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2020) 223 (9): jeb215194.
Published: 4 May 2020
... for both insect flight performance and life expectancy. Data from the literature and our own observations suggest that insects have evolved strategies that (i) reduce the likelihood of wing damage and (ii) allow them to cope with damage when it occurs: damage-related fractures are minimized because wings...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2015) 218 (2): 176–183.
Published: 15 January 2015
... and morphology of the organism. For burrowing animals, mud differs mechanically from sand; in mud, sediment grains are suspended in an organic matrix that fails by fracture. Macrofauna extend burrows through this elastic mud by fracture. Sand is granular and non-cohesive, enabling grains to more easily move...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2011) 214 (6): 1017–1027.
Published: 15 March 2011
... , lacking an eversible pharynx or proboscis, uses its hydrostatic skeleton to expand its anterior. Both behaviors apply stress to the burrow wall that is amplified at the tip of the crack, which extends by fracture. That two species with such distinct morphologies and life histories both burrow...
Includes: Multimedia, Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2010) 213 (24): 4272–4277.
Published: 15 December 2010
...James Che; Kelly M. Dorgan SUMMARY The polychaete Cirriformia moorei burrows in muddy sediments by fracture, using its hydrostatic skeleton to expand its anterior region and exert force against its burrow wall to extend a crack. Burrowing occurs in four phases: stretching forward into the burrow...
Includes: Multimedia, Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2010) 213 (8): 1241–1250.
Published: 15 April 2010
... mechanics and kinematics are lacking. The polychaete Nereis virens Sars extends its burrow by fracture, using an eversible pharynx to exert force on the walls of the burrow. The resulting stress is amplified at the anterior tip of the burrow, which extends when the stress exceeds the fracture toughness...
Includes: Multimedia, Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2009) 212 (22): 3627–3632.
Published: 15 November 2009
... experimental work on the effect blade shape has on fracturing biological materials indicated a notched blade greatly reduced the work required to cut tough tissue. As a notched blade both traps materials and cuts at an angle, it is not clear which of these features leads to increased cutting efficiency...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2008) 211 (23): 3677–3681.
Published: 1 December 2008
.... The in vivo moisture content of nails, measured from 55%to 80% RH, was between 14% and 30%, similar to other keratinous materials such as claws, hooves and feathers. Cutting tests on the nail samples showed that the work of fracture was between 11 and 22 kJ m –2 , rising to a peak at 55% RH and falling...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2008) 211 (22): 3619–3626.
Published: 15 November 2008
... energy is continually supplied directly to the tip of the fracture by some device such as a blade edge. Despite the variety of bladed tooth morphologies in gnathostomes, few studies have experimentally examined the effects of different blade designs on cutting efficiency. We tested the effects of blades...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2007) 210 (23): 4198–4212.
Published: 1 December 2007
.... The pharynx extends anteriorly as it everts, extending the crack tip only as far as the anterior of the worm, consistent with wedge-driven fracture and drawing obvious parallels between soft-bodied burrowers and more rigid, wedge-shaped burrowers (i.e. clams). Our results raise questions about the reputed...
Includes: Multimedia, Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2005) 208 (19): 3655–3664.
Published: 1 October 2005
... that mantis shrimp use a potent combination of cavitation forces and extraordinarily high impact forces to fracture shells. The stomatopod's hammer is fundamentally different from typical shell-crushing mechanisms such as fish jaws and lobster claws, and may have played an important and as yet unexamined role...
Includes: Multimedia, Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2004) 207 (5): 735–741.
Published: 15 February 2004
...L. Farren; S. Shayler; A. R. Ennos SUMMARY Fingernails are a characteristic feature of primates, and are composed of three layers of the fibrous composite keratin. This study examined the structure and fracture properties of human fingernails to determine how they resist bending forces while...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (1987) 130 (1): 121–136.
Published: 1 July 1987
...J. E. A. Bertram; J. M. Gosline ABSTRACT Tensile moduli and J-integral fracture toughness values were determined for horse hoof-wall keratin at four hydration levels. The stiffness of hoof-wall was influenced by water content to a greater degree than is the stiffness of other mammalian hard...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (1986) 125 (1): 29–47.
Published: 1 September 1986
...J. E. A. Bertram; J. M. Gosline ABSTRACT An engineering fracture mechanics approach was applied to the analysis of the fracture resistance of equine hoof-wall. The relationship between fracture toughness and the morphological organization of the keratin hoof tissue was investigated. Fracture...