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Keywords: force
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Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2020) 223 (1): jeb199018.
Published: 06 January 2020
... force at the onset of the perturbation. This relationship holds across different frequencies and timings of stimulation. This history dependence behaves like a viscoelastic memory producing perturbation responses that vary with the frequency of the underlying movement. Perturbations to steady periodic...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2019) 222 (23): jeb213553.
Published: 05 December 2019
... measuring kinetics and kinematics of animals moving within a medium. We describe a new system for measuring 3D reaction forces during burrowing, called a ‘tunnel-tube’, which is composed of two, separately instrumented plastic tubes: an ‘entry tube’ with no medium, in series with a ‘digging tube’ filled...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2019) 222 (16): jeb204107.
Published: 23 August 2019
...Zoe T. Self Davies; Andrew J. Spence; Alan M. Wilson ABSTRACT The horse has evolved to gallop economically at high speed. Limb force increases with speed but direct measures of limb ground reaction forces (GRFs) at gallop are sparse. This study reports GRFs for multiple limbs, using force plates...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2018) 221 (14): jeb182642.
Published: 17 July 2018
... that drive variation in self-righting performance. To evaluate the mechanical factors that contribute to success versus failure when animals attempt to self-right, we compared force production and kinematic behavior in the rigid-bodied, pleurodire turtle Emydura subglobosa between successful and...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2018) 221 (13): jeb163840.
Published: 06 July 2018
... force and power produced by increasing the demand on weight-supporting muscle. However, when normalised to body mass, muscle performance of obese individuals is reduced. Isolated muscle preparations show that obesity often leads to a decrease in force produced per muscle cross-sectional area, and power...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2018) 221 (8): jeb170910.
Published: 19 April 2018
... kinematics: implications for hominoid evolution . Am. J. Phys. Anthropol.   10.1002/ajpa.23397 Hanna , J. B. , Granatosky , M. C. , Rana , P. and Schmitt , D. ( 2017 ). The evolution of vertical climbing in primates: evidence from reaction forces . J. Exp. Biol.   220 , 3039...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2017) 220 (9): 1654–1662.
Published: 01 May 2017
...Anne K. Gutmann; John E. A. Bertram ABSTRACT To interpret the movement strategies employed in locomotion, it is necessary to understand the source of metabolic cost. Muscles must consume metabolic energy to do work, but also must consume energy to generate force. The energy lost during steady...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2017) 220 (6): 1154–1161.
Published: 15 March 2017
... predators on other constrictors remain unknown. To begin addressing these mechanisms, we studied the scaling of muscle cross-sectional area, pulling force and constriction pressure across the ontogeny of six species of snakes ( Lampropeltis californiae , L. getula , L. holbrooki , Pantherophis...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2016) 219 (18): 2806–2808.
Published: 15 September 2016
... not sprint performance in carp ( Cyprinus carpio ). We accept our hypothesis that hypothyroidism reduces force production in isolated skeletal muscle, when compared with the thyroid hormone T 2 , but we reject the hypothesis that this effect is mediated by influencing SERCA activity. Blocking SERCA...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2015) 218 (22): 3589–3595.
Published: 01 November 2015
... (force per muscle cross-sectional area) and maximal work loop power output (normalised to muscle mass) all significantly increased with greater SVL. In contrast, fatigue resistance during repeated work loops significantly decreased with SVL and there was no effect of size on tetanus activation time. When...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2015) 218 (18): 2856–2863.
Published: 01 September 2015
... well the contractile properties of skinned fibres reflect the properties of the muscle fibres in vivo . Here, we compare the mechanical performance of intact fibre bundles and skinned fibres from muscle of the same animals. This is the first such direct comparison. Maximum power and isometric force...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2015) 218 (2): 194–205.
Published: 15 January 2015
...Joseph E. Rupert; Jacob A. Rose; Jason M. Organ; Michael T. Butcher Scratch-digging mammals are commonly described as having large, powerful forelimb muscles for applying high force to excavate earth, yet studies quantifying the architectural properties of the musculature are largely unavailable...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2014) 217 (24): 4365–4371.
Published: 15 December 2014
... avoiding the cyclic absorption and regeneration of mechanical energy by active muscle, offers some metabolic energy savings during running. However, this assumption has not been tested directly. We used muscle ergometry and myothermic measurements to determine the cost of force production in muscles acting...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2013) 216 (19): 3709–3723.
Published: 01 October 2013
... that were represented using 44 Hill-type muscle models. Muscle architecture data, such as muscle masses, fascicle lengths and pennation angles, were drawn from literature sources. The model permits calculation of 3D muscle moment arms, muscle–tendon lengths and isometric muscle forces over a wide range...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2013) 216 (7): 1317–1329.
Published: 01 April 2013
... from spears to hammers. We measured the spring mechanics of 12 mantis shrimp species from five different families exhibiting hammer-shaped, spear-shaped and undifferentiated appendages. Across species, spring force and work increase with size of the appendage and spring constant is not correlated with...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2012) 215 (23): 4115–4124.
Published: 01 December 2012
...Pauline Provini; Bret W. Tobalske; Kristen E. Crandell; Anick Abourachid SUMMARY Take-off mechanics are fundamental to the ecology and evolution of flying animals. Recent research has revealed that initial take-off velocity in birds is driven mostly by hindlimb forces. However, the contribution of...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2012) 215 (14): 2425–2434.
Published: 15 July 2012
... cheetah can attain such remarkable maximum speeds. This also presented an opportunity to investigate some of the potential limits to maximum running speed in quadrupeds, which remain poorly understood. By combining force plate and high speed video data of galloping cheetahs and greyhounds, we show how the...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2012) 215 (12): 2135–2140.
Published: 15 June 2012
...Venus Joumaa; Brian R. MacIntosh; Walter Herzog SUMMARY Force depression observed following active shortening is not well understood. Previous research suggested that force depression might be associated with a stress-induced inhibition of cross-bridges in the newly formed overlap zone following...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2011) 214 (15): 2603–2615.
Published: 01 August 2011
... locomotor forces and limb bone stresses similar to those of non-avian reptiles, their highly sprawled posture combined with relatively small limb bones could produce elevated limb bone stresses closer to those of avian and mammalian species. This study evaluates the loads on the femur of the tiger...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2011) 214 (8): 1379–1385.
Published: 15 April 2011
... anguilliform fish we provide descriptive kinematic data on subsurface locomotion in a burrowing eel ( Pisodonophis boro ) using videofluoroscopy. We also measured the maximal forces that can be exerted by this species during head-first and tail-first burrowing, and explored the implications of head-first...