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Keywords: flight cost
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Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2005) 208 (21): 4099–4108.
Published: 1 November 2005
... by reaching BMR earlier in the night. Calculations show that the energy demands in the poor environment could not be met with the flight costs of 20.5 W that we measured previously in a rich environment. Flight costs derived indirectly from the energy budget were lower, at 17.5 W, probably due to lower body...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2004) 207 (22): 3969–3976.
Published: 15 October 2004
... by indirect calorimetry. It was not possible to perform a similar calibration during flight when energy costs were higher, so we extrapolated the relationship from the resting calibration to predict flight cost. Flight cost in the pre-manipulated individuals averaged 16.7±1.8 W. Flight cost in the pre...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2004) 207 (22): 3959–3968.
Published: 15 October 2004
... for sunbirds, 6 m; for starlings, 5 m), and measuring the amount of isotope eliminated during the flight. The isotope elimination rate was interpolated onto the calibration equation to predict flight cost, as a direct calibration could not be performed during flight. Mean energy expenditure during flight...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2004) 207 (22): 3977–3984.
Published: 15 October 2004
... slightly decreased, causing an increased wing beat frequency. The mean flight cost in the pre-manipulated birds was 1.90±0.1 W. There was a slight increase in flight cost with both of the asymmetry manipulations (0.5 cm,increase of 0.04 W; 1.0 cm, increase of 0.12 W), neither of which reached statistical...