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Keywords: flapping
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Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2019) 222 (1): jeb183517.
Published: 11 January 2019
... accumulate less fuel than species with low wing aspect ratio when covering a similar migration distance. Continuously flapping species accumulate the largest amounts of fuel, followed by flapping and soaring species and flapping and gliding species, while the smallest fuel loads were observed in birds...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2018) 221 (14): jeb176750.
Published: 20 July 2018
... were collected from brief squid, Lolliguncula brevis [3.1–6.5 cm dorsal mantle length (DML)], swimming freely in a water tunnel at speeds of 0.39–7.20 DML s −1 . Both flap and wave components were present in all fin motions, but the relative importance of the wave components was higher for arms-first...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2016) 219 (22): 3518–3531.
Published: 15 November 2016
... away from perceived threats using a drastic escape response that featured body pitch and roll rotations coupled with a large linear acceleration. Hummingbirds changed their flapping frequency and wing trajectory in all three degrees of freedom on a stroke-by-stroke basis, likely causing rapid...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2013) 216 (16): 3175–3182.
Published: 15 August 2013
...) with sporadic flapping, although little is known about how much time and energy albatrosses expend in flapping versus gliding during cruising flight. Here, we examined the heart rates (used as an instantaneous index of energy expenditure) and flapping activities of free-ranging black-browed albatrosses...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2010) 213 (19): 3319–3331.
Published: 1 October 2010
... is directed ventrally and essentially parallel to the stroke plane (i.e. rowing), but net flow in large animals is directed dorsally and essentially transverse to the stroke plane (i.e. flapping). Detailed flow measurements based on Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) ensemble-correlation analysis revealed...
Includes: Multimedia, Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2005) 208 (2): 355–369.
Published: 15 January 2005
... in the direction of travel) and perpendicular to the wing during downstroke, we calculate that 74.5% of the force required to support weight was provided by the wings, and that the aerodynamic muscle-mass specific power required to flap the wings was 272.7 W kg -1 . * Author for correspondence...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2003) 206 (22): 4051–4056.
Published: 15 November 2003
.... The distal sites experience double pressure peaks during the downstroke. These observations suggest that tertials provide weight-support throughout the wingbeat, that the wingtip provides thrust during upstroke and that the kinetic energy of the rapidly flapping wings may be dissipated via retarding...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2002) 205 (8): 1087–1096.
Published: 15 April 2002
...Sanjay P. Sane; Michael H. Dickinson SUMMARY We used a dynamically scaled model insect to measure the rotational forces produced by a flapping insect wing. A steadily translating wing was rotated at a range of constant angular velocities, and the resulting aerodynamic forces were measured using...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2002) 205 (2): 177–187.
Published: 15 January 2002
...Jeffrey A. Walker; Mark W. Westneat SUMMARY Labriform locomotion, which is powered by oscillating the paired pectoral fins, varies along a continuum from rowing the fins back and forth to flapping the fins up and down. It has generally been assumed (i) that flapping is more mechanically efficient...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (1996) 199 (7): 1613–1618.
Published: 1 July 1996
... 1/2 . These relationships apply to any dimensionally correct formula and are not affected by adjusting the coefficients within the dimensional constraints. 21 03 1996 ©The Company of Biologists Limited 1996 bird flight flapping wingbeat frequency The frequency...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (1993) 182 (1): 57–69.
Published: 1 September 1993
... prominent variations of kinematic variables were observed for the forewing movements. The relative lift and the steady angle of pitch were positively correlated but there was a negative correlation between relative lift and pitching amplitude. We found no correlation between relative lift and flapping...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (1990) 150 (1): 171–185.
Published: 1 May 1990
... is closely related to the ‘advance ratio’ as used by Ellington (1984) . 04 12 1989 © 1990 by Company of Biologists 1990 Ellington (1984) uses a dimensionless variable called the ‘advance ratio’ ( J ), to represent the ratio of the airspeed due to forward motion to that due to flapping...