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Keywords: drag
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Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2021) 224 (2): jeb230961.
Published: 01 February 2021
... Foraminifera tests, sunk in viscous mineral oil to match their Reynolds numbers and drag coefficients, we predicted sinking velocity of real tests in seawater. This method can be applied to study other settling particles such as plankton, spores or seeds. Following convention, when defining the area...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2020) 223 (20): jeb226654.
Published: 28 October 2020
.... Adhesion at these locations offers remoras drag reduction of up to 71–84% compared with the freestream. Remoras were observed to move freely along the surface of the whale using skimming and sliding behaviors. Skimming provided drag reduction as high as 50–72% at some locations for some remora sizes...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2019) 222 (22): jeb212464.
Published: 18 November 2019
... fields and distributions of thrust and drag along the body. Lampreys initiated acceleration from rest with the formation of a high-amplitude body bend at approximately one-quarter body length posterior to the head. This deep body bend produced two high-pressure regions from which the majority of thrust...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2018) 221 (7): jeb177600.
Published: 11 April 2018
... size. Sexual dimorphism Locomotion Parasitoids Miniaturization Drag Power Ballistics Elastic energy storage Jumping presents a ubiquitous mechanism for moving through the air without flying. It can serve the purpose of passing over obstacles ( Fleagle, 1976 ; Kohlsdorf and Navas...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2016) 219 (21): 3399–3411.
Published: 01 November 2016
... the raptorial appendages of mantis shrimp (Stomatopoda) using a combination of flume experiments, mathematical modeling and phylogenetic comparative analyses. We found that computationally efficient blade-element models offered an accurate first-order approximation of drag, when compared with a more elaborate...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2016) 219 (21): 3480–3491.
Published: 01 November 2016
.... A hydrodynamic drag function ( D ) based on single-point time-averaged velocity statistics that incorporates the influence of turbulent fluctuations was used to infer the energetic cost of steady swimming. Novel hydrodynamic preference curves were developed and used to assess the appropriateness of D...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2016) 219 (19): 3146–3154.
Published: 01 October 2016
... posture has a greater effect on aerodynamic performance during emulated flapping than during emulated gliding. Extended wing morphology (i.e. emarginate primaries) may be more important during take-off and landing than during gliding. Advance ratio Drag Flexed Extended Wind tunnel Propeller...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2016) 219 (16): 2458–2468.
Published: 15 August 2016
... bottlenose whales with data loggers that recorded depth, 3-axis acceleration and speed either with a fly-wheel or from change of depth corrected by pitch angle. We fitted measured values of the change in speed during 5 s descent and ascent glides to a hydrodynamic model of drag and buoyancy forces using...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2015) 218 (7): 1099–1110.
Published: 01 April 2015
... 1/(4−α) (or ∼ W 1/3.8 using the flat plate proxy). This result, used along with Eqn 2, thus suggests that increasing negative buoyancy will indeed lead to higher swim speed and thus to higher drag. Here η sw is a speed-dependent function (η sw =β u ) representing both metabolic...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2014) 217 (23): 4229–4236.
Published: 01 December 2014
...Julie M. van der Hoop; Andreas Fahlman; Thomas Hurst; Julie Rocho-Levine; K. Alex Shorter; Victor Petrov; Michael J. Moore Attaching bio-telemetry or -logging devices (‘tags’) to marine animals for research and monitoring adds drag to streamlined bodies, thus affecting posture, swimming gaits...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2014) 217 (15): 2740–2751.
Published: 01 August 2014
... in length. Animals at this scale generally operate within the regime of intermediate Reynolds numbers, where both viscous and inertial fluid forces have the potential to play a role in propulsion. The present study aimed to resolve which forces create thrust and drag in the paddling of the water boatman...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2014) 217 (9): 1485–1495.
Published: 01 May 2014
... did not make it possible to parse out FMR during directed transit across the bay from the total FMR of the entire trip. In each pairwise comparison, we tested for a treatment effect by including the interaction between the response variable and treatment (control or added drag) in the model. Pooled...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2014) 217 (7): 1167–1174.
Published: 01 April 2014
... with hosts. This study explored the biomechanical costs and benefits of the epiphytic association between the intertidal brown algal epiphyte Soranthera ulvoidea and its red algal host Odonthalia floccosa . Drag on epiphytized and unepiphytized hosts was measured in a recirculating water flume. A typical...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2013) 216 (9): 1717–1725.
Published: 01 May 2013
... be a significant selective factor acting on body shape. On exposed shores, narrower arms probably reduce both lift and drag in breaking waves. On protected shores, fatter arms may provide more thermal inertia to resist overheating, or more body volume for gametes. Such plastic changes in body shape represent...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2012) 215 (21): 3693–3702.
Published: 01 November 2012
..., indicates that peak coefficients of lift and drag ( C L and C D ) and lift-to-drag ratio ( C L : C D ) increase throughout ontogeny and that these patterns correspond with changes in feather microstructure. To begin to place these results in a comparative context that includes variation in life-history...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2012) 215 (20): 3622–3630.
Published: 15 October 2012
... direction. * Author for correspondence ( pm29@st-andrews.ac.uk ) 10 1 2012 1 6 2012 © 2012. 2012 drag buoyancy cost-of-transport swimming gait Total cost-of-transport (COT) is the amount of energy expended by an organism moving a unit of mass a given distance, which...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2011) 214 (17): 2973–2987.
Published: 01 September 2011
... in response to the need to produce thrust required to overcome combined drag and buoyancy forces. This work was funded by the program bio-logging Science of the University of Tokyo (UTBLS), Grant-in Aids for Science Research from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (21681002), the National...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2011) 214 (16): 2655–2659.
Published: 15 August 2011
... enabled us to observe the change in overall shape of the urchins and quantify the decrease in spine angle that occurred as flow speeds increased. The effect of this behaviour on drag and lift was measured with physical models made from urchin tests with spines in the `up' position (typical in stagnant...
Includes: Multimedia, Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2011) 214 (11): 1867–1873.
Published: 01 June 2011
... is that this behavior is aerodynamically inactive and serves to minimize drag. The second is that the tip-reversal upstroke is capable of producing significant aerodynamic forces. Here, we explored the aerodynamic capabilities of the tip-reversal upstroke using a well-established propeller method. Rock dove ( Columba...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2011) 214 (1): 131–146.
Published: 01 January 2011
... exerted by the buccal cavity walls onto the engulfed mass ( F BC ). By action–reaction, such a force gives rise to engulfment drag (i.e. F ED as F ED = F BC ), which adds to the so-called shape drag ( F SD ) being produced by the flow around the whale's body (external drag). Several possible forms...
Includes: Supplementary data