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J Exp Biol (2020) 223 (9): jeb215194.
Published: 4 May 2020
... but also need to resist excessive stresses caused by accidental collisions. This Commentary provides a summary of the literature on damage-reducing morphological adaptations in wings, covering natural causes of wing collisions, their impact on the structural integrity of wings and associated consequences...
J Exp Biol (2013) 216 (6): 933–938.
Published: 15 March 2013
... velocity is small, so the energy absorbing collisions are small. In a simple model, cutting the step length in half cuts the collisional energy loss per step by four, and the energy loss per unit distance in half ( Kuo, 2002 ). If steps were small enough, the CoM would travel nearly in parallel...
J Exp Biol (2012) 215 (10): 1728–1739.
Published: 15 May 2012
... moving. The instantaneous COM collision angle (φ) can be calculated as ( Lee et al., 2011 ): To determine how the COM collisional angles change across gait and speed, we examined the change in λ, θ and φ with forward velocity. For comparative purposes, the weighted average of each...
J Exp Biol (2007) 210 (3): 533–540.
Published: 1 February 2007
... to walking down a gentle slope in order to overcome collisional losses. The relevance of the energetic cost of collisions at each limb placement is being increasingly understood in a variety of locomotory systems, including bipedal walking ( Kuo, 2002 ; Donelan et al., 2002 ; Collins et al., 2005 ), gibbon...
J Exp Biol (2003) 206 (10): 1631–1642.
Published: 15 May 2003
... that would allow a smooth transition into the swing phase. The sudden change in velocity due to such an overshoot is associated with a collision. Assuming neither the handhold nor the gibbon stores elastic strain energy, the energetic consequences of such overshoots can be calculated. We suggest two reasons...