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Keywords: central pattern generationClose
Series: CENTENARY ARTICLE
J Exp Biol (2023) 226 (15): jeb245784.
Published: 11 August 2023
... control because it contains central pattern generators (CPGs) – systems of coupled neuronal oscillators that provide coordinated rhythmic control of muscle activation that can be viewed as feedforward controllers – and multiple reflex loops that provide feedback mechanisms. These circuits are activated...
J Exp Biol (2008) 211 (16): 2624–2637.
Published: 15 August 2008
..., 1961 ), breathing( Lieske et al., 2000 ) and the grinding of food ( Marder,2000 ; Marder and Bucher,2001 ; Marder and Calabrese,1996 ) are usually produced by central pattern generators (CPGs). These CPGs are often multifunctional and comprise a large number of different motor outputs...
J Exp Biol (2007) 210 (16): 2912–2922.
Published: 15 August 2007
... (e-mail: email@example.com ) 16 5 2007 © The Company of Biologists Limited 2007 2007 Cancer pagurus stomatogastric ganglion projection neuron central pattern generation sensory regulation Sensory feedback to motor networks ensures proper motor output so...
J Exp Biol (1993) 174 (1): 343–362.
Published: 1 January 1993
... © 1993 The Company of Biologists Limited 1993 central pattern generation cotransmission Locusta migratoria proctolin ovipositor opener muscle Recent years have seen an explosion in the number of identified myotropic neuropeptides in insects. It is still far from clear, however...
J Exp Biol (1993) 174 (1): 321–342.
Published: 1 January 1993
... and the associated abdominal ganglia containing the central pattern generator that drives oviposition digging. In this preparation it is possible to record simultaneously motoneurone activity, muscle electromyograms, intracellular muscle fibre activity and behaviourally relevant tension production. The muscle...
J Exp Biol (1992) 170 (1): 71–92.
Published: 1 September 1992
... motor neuron homologous neurons embryogenesis muscle central pattern generation Neurons adopt several strategies to establish their connectivity patterns, ranging from relatively simple choices of defined substrata ( Bastiani and Goodman, 1984 ; Berlot and Goodman, 1984 ; Ho and Goodman...
J Exp Biol (1984) 113 (1): 493–497.
Published: 1 November 1984
... central pattern generation spinal cord lamprey One question to consider is whether the motoneurones themselves constitute a part of the rhythm-generating circuitry, or merely represent an output stage, phasically driven by signals from an interneuronal network (cf. Wallén, 1982 ; Russell...