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J Exp Biol (2007) 210 (1): 107–117.
Published: 01 January 2007
... was an increase in approach speed. The drag forces experienced by the fins and body are proportional to the velocity of the flow squared. Thus, the braking forces exerted by fins,without any change in kinematics, will increase exponentially with small increases in swimming speed, perhaps allowing...
J Exp Biol (2005) 208 (24): 4735–4746.
Published: 15 December 2005
...Timothy E. Higham; Brett Malas; Bruce C. Jayne; George V. Lauder SUMMARY Many natural animal movements involve accelerating from a standstill and then stopping. Obstacles in natural environments often limit the straight-line distance available for movement, and decreased braking ability...
J Exp Biol (2004) 207 (10): 1715–1728.
Published: 15 April 2004
... braking force while the hindlimb exerts a net propulsive force. Steady speed locomotion requires that braking and propulsion of the stance limbs be equal in magnitude. We predicted that changes in body mass distribution would alter individual limb braking–propulsive force patterns and we tested this...