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Keywords: Wing
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Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2023) 226 (8): jeb245728.
Published: 19 April 2023
... the development and scaling of body parts remains unclear. In bees, a reduction in body size and/or a reduction in body parts, such as the antennae, tongue and wings, and how they scale with body size (i.e. their allometry) could severely affect their fitness. To date, it remains unclear how temperature affects...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2011) 214 (11): 1867–1873.
Published: 1 June 2011
...Kristen E. Crandell; Bret W. Tobalske SUMMARY During slow flight, bird species vary in their upstroke kinematics using either a ‘flexed wing’ or a distally supinated ‘tip-reversal’ upstroke. Two hypotheses have been presented concerning the function of the tip-reversal upstroke. The first...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2011) 214 (6): 915–920.
Published: 15 March 2011
...-off for these insects to adopt hydrophobic technologies, especially on contacting surfaces such as legs and wings. The cranefly is a weak flier, with many species typically found in wet/moist environments where they lay eggs. Water droplets placed on this insect's wings will spontaneously roll off...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2009) 212 (16): 2691–2704.
Published: 15 August 2009
...David Lentink; Michael H. Dickinson SUMMARY Organisms that swim or fly with fins or wings physically interact with the surrounding water and air. The interactions are governed by the morphology and kinematics of the locomotory system that form boundary conditions to the Navier–Stokes (NS) equations...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2009) 212 (16): 2705–2719.
Published: 15 August 2009
...David Lentink; Michael H. Dickinson SUMMARY The aerodynamic performance of hovering insects is largely explained by the presence of a stably attached leading edge vortex (LEV) on top of their wings. Although LEVs have been visualized on real, physically modeled, and simulated insects, the physical...
Includes: Multimedia, Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2007) 210 (18): 3135–3146.
Published: 15 September 2007
... in wing kinematics and aerodynamics across flight speeds are gradual. Take-off flight performance scales with body size, but fully revealing the mechanisms responsible for this pattern awaits new study. Intermittent flight appears to reduce the power cost for flight, as some species flap–glide at slow...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2004) 207 (17): 3035–3042.
Published: 1 August 2004
...F. Song; K. L. Lee; A. K. Soh; F. Zhu; Y. L. Bai SUMMARY Detailed investigations on the structural and mechanical properties of the forewing of the cicada were carried out. Measurement of the structures of the wings showed that the thickness of the membrane of each cell and the diameter of each...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2004) 207 (15): 2691–2703.
Published: 1 July 2004
...Keri L. Page; Thomas Matheson SUMMARY The anatomy and physiology of exteroceptors on the surfaces of the wings have been described in many insects, but their roles in behaviour have been less well studied. They have often been assumed to have a role primarily in flight. We show that the wings...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2003) 206 (22): 4051–4056.
Published: 15 November 2003
...James R. Usherwood; Tyson L. Hedrick; Andrew A. Biewener SUMMARY Direct pressure measurements using electronic differential pressure transducers along bird wings provide insight into the aerodynamics of these dynamically varying aerofoils. Acceleration-compensated pressures were measured at five...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2003) 206 (17): 2979–2987.
Published: 1 September 2003
...S. A. Combes; T. L. Daniel SUMMARY During flight, many insect wings undergo dramatic deformations that are controlled largely by the architecture of the wing. The pattern of supporting veins in wings varies widely among insect orders and families, but the functional significance of phylogenetic...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2002) 205 (11): 1565–1576.
Published: 1 June 2002
...James R. Usherwood; Charles P. Ellington SUMMARY High force coefficients, similar to those observed for revolving model hawkmoth wings in the accompanying paper (for which steady leading-edge vortices are directly observed), are apparent for revolving model (mayfly,bumblebee and quail) and real...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2002) 205 (1): 55–70.
Published: 1 January 2002
...Mao Sun; Jian Tang SUMMARY A computational fluid-dynamic analysis was conducted to study the unsteady aerodynamics of a model fruit fly wing. The wing performs an idealized flapping motion that emulates the wing motion of a fruit fly in normal hovering flight. The Navier–Stokes equations are solved...
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Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2000) 203 (19): 2977–2990.
Published: 1 October 2000
... anemometry, high-speed videography and flow visualization to study air flow near the feathery olfactory antennae of male silkworm moths ( Bombyx mori L.). When exposed to conspecific female sex pheromone, male B. mori flap their wings through a stroke angle of 90–110 ° at approximately 40 Hz without flying...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (1999) 202 (23): 3333–3345.
Published: 1 December 1999
... for walking in air are effectively point-loaded, and their rigid components need to resist axial forces as well as bending and torsional moments. Aquatic walking limbs have little axial loading, while swimming appendages and wings experience only bending and torsional moments, and can exploit these to assist...
Journal Articles
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (1996) 199 (2): 281–294.
Published: 1 February 1996
...Masato Okamoto; Kunio Yasuda; Akira Azuma ABSTRACT The aerodynamic characteristics of the wings and body of a dragonfly and of artificial wing models were studied by conducting two types of wind-tunnel tests and a number of free-flight tests of gliders made using dragonfly wings. The results were...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (1994) 190 (1): 195–215.
Published: 1 May 1994
...Sean J. Kirkpatrick ABSTRACT The effects of scale on the estimated stresses and safety factors in the humeri of several bird and bat species were investigated. This was accomplished by estimating the lift distribution across the wings at two extremes of flight, gliding flight and the downstroke...