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Keywords: Quadruped
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Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2019) 222 (14): jeb198648.
Published: 26 July 2019
... , A. , Thibaudier , Y. and Hurteau , M.-F. ( 2015 ). Modulation of forelimb and hindlimb muscle activity during quadrupedal tied-belt and split-belt locomotion in intact cats . Neuroscience   290 , 266 - 278 . 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2014.12.084 Gálvez-López , E. , Maes , L. D...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2019) 222 (10): jeb198325.
Published: 23 May 2019
....   273 , 2861 - 2867 . 10.1098/rspb.2006.3637 Griffin , T. M. , Main , R. P. and Farley , C. T. ( 2004 ). Biomechanics of quadrupedal walking: how do four-legged animals achieve inverted pendulum-like movements?   J. Exp. Biol.   207 , 3545 - 3558 . 10.1242/jeb.01177...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2019) 222 (2): jeb159277.
Published: 16 January 2019
... a modest walking speed range. By this measure, giraffes are broadly similar to most other quadrupedal mammals, despite having a large (and long) mass of neck and head attached to the cranial thorax. Impulse CC values are often different in quadrupeds' forelimbs and hindlimbs, owing to the specialised...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2015) 218 (19): 3102–3109.
Published: 1 October 2015
... could represent some of the locomotor differences observed between these postures. Analysis of gaits, through footfall patterns, has been applied broadly to a wide range of terrestrial species (e.g. Gray, 1968 ; Hildebrand, 1976 , 1977 ). Within quadrupedal animals, a lateral walk, in which...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2013) 216 (12): 2201–2212.
Published: 15 June 2013
... in energy. These analyses offer new insight into quadrupedal locomotion, clarifying how the moments generated by hindlimb muscles modulate mechanical energy at different locomotor speeds and grades, as needed to accommodate the demands of variable terrain. * Author for correspondence ( aarnold...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2012) 215 (10): 1728–1739.
Published: 15 May 2012
... patterns of percentage energy recovery across speed and gait in other quadrupedal primates. The highest value in a walking stride (71%) is near the maximum values reported for other quadrupeds ( Gein et al., 2010 ; Griffin et al., 2004a ; Usherwood et al., 2007 ), suggesting that lemurs are capable...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2011) 214 (3): 402–411.
Published: 1 February 2011
...David V. Lee SUMMARY Quadrupedal running on grades requires balancing of pitch moments about the center of mass (COM) while supplying sufficient impulse to maintain a steady uphill or downhill velocity. Here, trotting mechanics on a 15 deg grade were characterized by the distribution of impulse...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2009) 212 (7): 1036–1052.
Published: 1 April 2009
... (e-mail: carrier@biology.utah.edu ) 19 1 2009 2009 retractor muscles protractor muscles electromyogram EMG recruitment quadruped running hip Because the extrinsic appendicular muscles cross from attachment sites on the trunk to attachment sites on a limb, they play...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2008) 211 (1): 138–149.
Published: 1 January 2008
...Ludovic D. Maes; Marc Herbin; Rémi Hackert; Vincent L. Bels; Anick Abourachid SUMMARY Only a few studies on quadrupedal locomotion have investigated symmetrical and asymmetrical gaits in the same framework because the mechanisms underlying these two types of gait seem to be different and it took...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2008) 211 (1): 150–162.
Published: 1 January 2008
... retractor EMG during quadrupedal walking in primates. J. Exp. Biol. 210 , 1204 -1215. Nassar, P., Jackson, A. and Carrier, D. R. ( 2001 ). Entraining the natural frequencies of running and breathing in guinea fowl. J. Exp. Biol. 204 , 1641 -1651. Owerkowicz, T., Farmer, C., Hicks, J. W...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2007) 210 (3): 533–540.
Published: 1 February 2007
... are also largely out of phase in walking quadrupeds( Cavagna et al., 1977 )including dogs ( Griffin et al.,2004 ), the mechanics of quadrupedal walking is generally less clear: although kinetic and potential energy oscillations can be broadly out of phase, the degree to which limbs can be treated as stiff...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2006) 209 (20): 4154–4166.
Published: 15 October 2006
... forces (SRFs, a measure of overall limb function) of most quadrupedal mammals moving linearly along a flat and level trackway using a symmetrical gait follow a common pattern. The vertical component of the SRF is by far the largest in magnitude because of its role in body weight support. Forelimb...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2006) 209 (11): 2224–2237.
Published: 1 June 2006
.... Tokuriki, M. ( 1973a ). Electromyographic and joint-mechanical studies in quadrupedal locomotion. I. Walk. Jpn. J. vet. Sci . 35 , 433 -446. Tokuriki, M. ( 1973b ). Electromyographic and joint-mechanical studies in quadrupedal locomotion. II. Trot. Jpn. J. vet. Sci . 35 , 525 -533. Tokuriki...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2006) 209 (2): 249–259.
Published: 15 January 2006
...J. J. Chen; A. M. Peattie; K. Autumn; R. J. Full SUMMARY Legs of sprawled-posture, quadrupedal trotting geckos ( Hemidactylus garnotii ) each functioned differently during constant average-speed locomotion. The center of mass decelerated in the first half of a step and accelerated in the second...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2005) 208 (6): 1191–1200.
Published: 15 March 2005
... measurements of muscle forces in quadrupeds locomoting on the level and incline but the available data suggest that muscle forces may be different under these two conditions. In cats walking up a 30-60° incline, forces in the tendon of the medial gastrocnemius are higher than on the level but those...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2005) 208 (6): 1175–1190.
Published: 15 March 2005
.... * Author for correspondence (e-mail: dfhoyt@csupomona.edu ) 22 12 2004 © The Company of Biologists Limited 2005 2005 Locomotion quadruped sonomicrometry muscle In addition to serving to attach muscles to bones and optimize the arrangement of fascicles within muscles( Gans...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2002) 205 (7): 959–967.
Published: 1 April 2002
... of assumptions if we were to find discrepancies between predictions and data (e.g. in metabolic cost). To summarize, we ask whether there exists a set of biologically plausible locomotory principles that, when specified in the formulation of our model,unifies well-known features of quadrupedal trotting...