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Keywords: Quadruped
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Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2019) 222 (14): jeb198648.
Published: 26 July 2019
... sensory feedback is intact, animals may lessen balance demands to enhance the efficiency of locomotion. To reduce effort and energy expenditure during walking, bipedal and quadrupedal animals use gravity and the inverted pendulum mechanism to destabilize body balance in the direction of propulsion...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2019) 222 (10): jeb198325.
Published: 23 May 2019
... mechanics, or vertical excursions of the body, during locomotion could have benefits across species and gaits, we expected that the previously observed response of human runners to substrates of variable stiffness would be mirrored in the hindlimbs of goats. However, recognizing that quadrupedal walking is...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2019) 222 (2): jeb159277.
Published: 16 January 2019
..., giraffes are broadly similar to most other quadrupedal mammals, despite having a large (and long) mass of neck and head attached to the cranial thorax. Impulse CC values are often different in quadrupeds' forelimbs and hindlimbs, owing to the specialised functions of these limbs in braking and...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2015) 218 (19): 3102–3109.
Published: 01 October 2015
... Grizzly Bear Committee, the Raili Korkka Brown Bear Fund, the Nutritional Ecology Fund, and the Bear Research and Conservation Endowments. References Alexander , R. M. ( 1984 ). The gaits of bipedal and quadrupedal animals . Int. J. Robot. Res.   3 , 49 - 59 . 10.1177/027836498400300205...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2013) 216 (12): 2201–2212.
Published: 15 June 2013
... to the decrease in energy. These analyses offer new insight into quadrupedal locomotion, clarifying how the moments generated by hindlimb muscles modulate mechanical energy at different locomotor speeds and grades, as needed to accommodate the demands of variable terrain. * Author for...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2012) 215 (10): 1728–1739.
Published: 15 May 2012
... primate quadrupedalism, how the center of mass (COM) moves is not well understood. Here, we examined COM energy, work and power during walking, cantering and galloping in ring-tailed lemurs, Lemur catta ( N =5), over a broad speed range (0.43–2.91 m s –1 ). COM energy recoveries were substantial during...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2011) 214 (3): 402–411.
Published: 01 February 2011
... the hindlimb during uphill trotting. Conversely, quadrupeds with COM positions closer to the hindlimbs would distribute braking force more equally between the forelimb and the hindlimb during downhill trotting. This raises a basic question of quadrupedal design: what COM position allows adequate...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2009) 212 (7): 1036–1052.
Published: 01 April 2009
.... J. Exp. Biol. 212 , 1053 -1063. * Author for correspondence (e-mail: carrier@biology.utah.edu ) 19 1 2009 2009 retractor muscles protractor muscles electromyogram EMG recruitment quadruped running hip Because the extrinsic appendicular muscles cross from...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2008) 211 (1): 138–149.
Published: 01 January 2008
... quantifying the relationship between temporal and spatial limb coordination, to gauge the benefit of integrating spatial limb coordination into studies on quadrupedal locomotion. Many studies of limb coordination in quadrupeds have been carried out on small mammals. Studies on dogs have focused on...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2008) 211 (1): 150–162.
Published: 01 January 2008
... between ventilatory airflow and the locomotor cycle in trotting dogs. * Author for correspondence (e-mail: carrier@biology.utah.edu ) 18 10 2007 © The Company of Biologists Limited 2008 2008 forelimb retractor muscles protractor muscles EMG recruitment quadruped running...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2007) 210 (3): 533–540.
Published: 01 February 2007
... insight into the selective pressures on both footfall timing [see Ruina et al. for horse galloping( Ruina et al., 2005 )] and mechanisms of powering [see Kuo for bipedal walking( Kuo, 2002 )] quadrupedal walking. Collisional energy losses in our example walking quadruped( Fig. 5 ) are minimised at a...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2006) 209 (20): 4154–4166.
Published: 15 October 2006
... measure of overall limb function) of most quadrupedal mammals moving linearly along a flat and level trackway using a symmetrical gait follow a common pattern. The vertical component of the SRF is by far the largest in magnitude because of its role in body weight support. Forelimb vertical SRFs tend to...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2006) 209 (11): 2224–2237.
Published: 01 June 2006
...? J. Zool. Lond . 232 , 215 -230. Tokuriki, M. ( 1973a ). Electromyographic and joint-mechanical studies in quadrupedal locomotion. I. Walk. Jpn. J. vet. Sci . 35 , 433 -446. Tokuriki, M. ( 1973b ). Electromyographic and joint-mechanical studies in quadrupedal locomotion. II. Trot. Jpn...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2006) 209 (2): 249–259.
Published: 15 January 2006
...J. J. Chen; A. M. Peattie; K. Autumn; R. J. Full SUMMARY Legs of sprawled-posture, quadrupedal trotting geckos ( Hemidactylus garnotii ) each functioned differently during constant average-speed locomotion. The center of mass decelerated in the first half of a step and accelerated in the second...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2005) 208 (6): 1191–1200.
Published: 15 March 2005
... movement will require analysis of more muscles of varying architecture, as well as measurements of muscle forces. The mechanical work required to elevate the center of mass of a quadruped during locomotion up an incline requires an increase in shortening strain of the antigravity muscles of both the...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2005) 208 (6): 1175–1190.
Published: 15 March 2005
... activity. * Author for correspondence (e-mail: dfhoyt@csupomona.edu ) 22 12 2004 © The Company of Biologists Limited 2005 2005 Locomotion quadruped sonomicrometry muscle In addition to serving to attach muscles to bones and optimize the arrangement of fascicles within...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2002) 205 (7): 959–967.
Published: 01 April 2002
... this work, it had not been shown that the size-dependent properties of quadrupedal running could be unified within a single theoretical framework. In the study of body size to understand locomotory function, we believe that identifying mechanisms critical to stability and metabolic economy can lead to...