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Keywords: Proboscis extension reflex
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Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2020) 223 (10): jeb220103.
Published: 18 May 2020
..., competing plants create an enormous sensory load that must be processed in order to make appropriate decisions and optimize energy use during foraging ( Chittka and Raine, 2006 ; Knauer and Schiestl, 2015 ). Associative learning Conditioning Bombus impatiens Proboscis extension reflex PER...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2018) 221 (5): jeb168344.
Published: 1 March 2018
... learning, using proboscis extension reflex conditioning. At concentrations of 0.5–10 µg TRP ml −1 , there were no learning effects of acute exposure. However, memory retention (1 h after the last learning trial) significantly decreased by 56% following acute consumption of 0.5 µg TRP ml −1 . Chronic...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2018) 221 (4): jeb161489.
Published: 19 February 2018
... show differences in amino acids and biogenic amines. We took newly emerged bees and fed them with Nosema ceranae . At approximate nurse and forager ages, we employed an odor-associative conditioning assay using the proboscis extension reflex and two bioanalytical techniques to measure changes in brain...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2013) 216 (15): 2931–2938.
Published: 1 August 2013
... ( Apis mellifera ) colonies. Fluvalinate's effects on honey bees are not well known. Honey bee cognitive and neural function can be assessed using the proboscis extension reflex (PER), which applies Pavlovian conditioning techniques. This study used PER to evaluate effects of fluvalinate on honey bee...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2012) 215 (16): 2827–2832.
Published: 15 August 2012
... the feeding response to amino acids is regulated are unknown. In this study, the two-choice preference test, the proboscis extension reflex test and a CAFE assay were performed to explore the ability of D. melanogaster to detect and discriminate amino acids. To determine whether D. melanogaster change...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (1999) 202 (13): 1839–1854.
Published: 1 July 1999
... 1999 honeybee Apis mellifera learning proboscis extension reflex blocking effect olfaction cognition attention Over the last few decades, investigations into the role of reinforcement in the establishment of associations have remained central to associative learning research...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (1997) 200 (23): 2969–2976.
Published: 1 December 1997
...), a sucrose solution. The occurrence of a proboscis extension reflex (PER) was tested. The PER performance during acquisition increased steadily with the number of training trials. Non-associative control procedures did not result in learning. PER conditioning was achieved when the CS was presented 1–3 s...