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J Exp Biol (2016) 219 (1): 17–25.
Published: 01 January 2016
... freezing at −20°C. Cold-hardening markedly increased hemolymph osmolality, as well as hemolymph levels of free proline, total amino acids and proteins. Cold-hardiness Cholesterol Free amino acids Proline Glycerol Cryoprotection Many temperate and polar insects avoid chilling and freezing...
J Exp Biol (2013) 216 (11): 1991–2000.
Published: 01 June 2013
... and myoinositol accumulation in LTCA. Thus, the moderate increase in cold shock tolerance conferred by RCH seems to be dominated by effects of Hsps, whereas the substantially better cold tolerance achieved after LTCA is dominated by post-transcriptional processes increasing membrane fluidity and cryoprotectant...
J Exp Biol (2008) 211 (18): 2969–2975.
Published: 15 September 2008
...Jon P. Costanzo; Richard E. Lee, Jr SUMMARY We tested the hypothesis that urea, an osmolyte accumulated early in hibernation, functions as a cryoprotectant in the freeze-tolerant wood frog, Rana sylvatica . Relative to saline-treated, normouremic (10 μmol ml –1 ) frogs, individuals rendered...
J Exp Biol (2007) 210 (15): 2585–2592.
Published: 01 August 2007
... in the phenotype in response to low temperature – may be partitioned hierarchically at evolutionary scales according to cryoprotective strategy, at macrophysiological scales according to climatic variability, and at meso- and micro-scales according to ecological niche and exposure. In correspondence...
J Exp Biol (2005) 208 (21): 4079–4089.
Published: 01 November 2005
... urea. Nevertheless, the concentrations of urea and glucose in some tissues were similar. We tested urea's efficacy as a cryoprotectant by measuring lysis and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage in samples of R. sylvatica erythrocytes frozen/thawed in the presence of physiological levels of urea...
J Exp Biol (2003) 206 (16): 2859–2867.
Published: 15 August 2003
...Jason T. Irwin; Jr Richard E. Lee SUMMARY The physiological responses supporting freeze tolerance in anurans are well known, but the evolution of this trait remains little studied. This is the first common-garden study of geographic variation in cryoprotective responses to freezing and the degree...