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Keywords: Cardinalis cardinalisClose
Journal: Journal of Experimental Biology
J Exp Biol (2002) 205 (1): 25–35.
Published: 1 January 2002
... birds. In songbirds (brown thrashers, Toxostoma rufum , and cardinals, Cardinalis cardinalis ), direct observations of the biomechanical effects of contraction largely confirm the functions of the intrinsic syringeal muscles proposed from indirect studies. Contraction of the dorsal muscles, m...