ABSTRACT The majority of fat in the human body is stored as triacylglycerols in white adipose tissue. In the obese state, adipose tissue mass expands and excess lipids are stored in non-adipose tissues, such as skeletal muscle. Lipids are stored in skeletal muscle in the form of small lipid droplets. Although originally viewed as dull organelles that simply store lipids as a consequence of lipid overflow from adipose tissue, lipid droplets are now recognized as key components in the cell that exert a variety of relevant functions in multiple tissues (including muscle). Here, we review the effect of diet and exercise interventions on myocellular lipid droplets and their putative role in insulin sensitivity from a human perspective. We also provide an overview of lipid droplet biology and identify gaps for future research.