1. Schistocerca gregaria ion-transport peptide (Scg-ITP) was isolated from aqueous extracts of the corpus cardiacum by a four-step procedure, utilizing reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography for separation and stimulation of a Cl(-)-dependent short-circuit current (Isc) across locust ilea as the bioassay. 2. Scg-ITP has an unblocked N terminus and an apparent relative molecular mass of 7700. Thirty-one residues (of an estimated 65) were identified by sequence analysis. 3. Scg-ITP is structurally related to a crustacean family of neuropeptides which includes the crustacean hyperglycaemic hormones from the shore crab Carcinus maenas and the crayfish Orconectes limosus and moult-inhibiting hormone and vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone from the lobster Homarus americanus. 4. Scg-ITP has no sequence homology with neuroparsins (Nps). Nps are the only other neuropeptides isolated to date that might regulate reabsorption in an insect hindgut (rectum).
1. Schistocerca gregaria ion-transport peptide (Scg-ITP), a neuropeptide isolated from locust corpora cardiaca, stimulates ileal Cl- transport (Isc) in a dose-dependent manner and causes increases in Na+, K+ (IK) and fluid reabsorption (Jv) as previously observed with crude extracts of corpus cardiacum and with cyclic AMP. Unlike cyclic AMP, Scg-ITP does not stimulate ileal NH4+ secretion. 2. H+ secretion (JH) in the ileum, which is not affected by cyclic AMP, is almost completely abolished by Scg-ITP. Although ITP may act via cyclic AMP as second messenger to stimulate NaCl, KCl and fluid reabsorption, it apparently acts through a different intracellular pathway to influence JH. 3. Scg-ITP is unlikely to be the chloride transport stimulating hormone previously reported to act on the rectum, because it did not produce a maximum rectal Isc response and had no effect on either rectal Jv (which is Cl--dependent) or IK.