Evolution of plasticity: metabolic compensation for fluctuating energy demands at the origin of life
Summary: We propose that metabolic plasticity originated in prebiotic protocells and that it was a pre-requisite for effective transfer of genetic material across generations – the hallmark of Darwinian evolution.
Summary: Analysis of behavioural data in relation to perceived physical cues indicates an excellent sound localization ability in chickens, even in comparison to the barn owl, which is a sound localization specialist.
Summary: Swarming mosquitoes change their wingbeat frequency and flight speed in response to sound pressure levels <20 dB, highlighting the importance of measuring hearing thresholds in free-flight.
High PCO2 does not alter the thermal plasticity of developing Pacific herring embryos during a marine heatwave
Summary: Pacific herring embryos tolerated exposure to a simulated marine heatwave, but exhibited significant metabolic trade-offs. Exposure to high PCO2 induced few metabolic effects and did not alter thermal plasticity.
Vocalization-associated respiration patterns: thermography-based monitoring and detection of preparation for calling
Summary: A thermography-based methodology for estimating breathing traces in free-ranging meerkats detects changes in respiration associated with the preparation and with the production of vocal signals by combining respiration monitoring with audio recordings.
The effects of posture on the three-dimensional gait mechanics of human walking in comparison with walking in bipedal chimpanzees
Summary: Differences between human crouched-posture gait and bipedal chimpanzee gait illustrate the limitations of using modern humans to infer the evolution of hominin bipedalism.
Summary: The adhesion mechanism of an early-evolved spider capture thread depends on the cuticular hydrocarbon composition of its potential insect prey: less-viscous hydrocarbons interact better with the thread, matching biophysical models of hydrocarbon phase behaviour.
Fiddler crab electroretinograms reveal vast circadian shifts in visual sensitivity and temporal summation in dim light
Summary: Following descriptions of striking morphological changes in fiddler crab compound eyes from day to night, we report evidence for great changes in the associated visual sensitivity in Gelasimus dampieri.
Insulin-like peptide 3 stimulates hemocytes to proliferate in anautogenous and facultatively autogenous mosquitoes
Summary: Many mosquitoes transmit disease-causing microbes by blood feeding on vertebrates. Insulin-like peptides stimulate immune cell proliferation in blood-feeding mosquitoes.
Highlighted Article: Honeybee swarm clusters change their shape to modulate their internal temperature in response to ambient temperature variations. Mechanical constraints and heat transfer govern their thermoregulatory morphing dynamics.
Summary: The azimuth of contact location is a key parameter of active tactile exploration and tactually induced turning in stick insects.
Summary: Compared with desert birds, desert rodents have very limited capacity for evaporative heat dissipation and likely rely on behavioral strategies to avoid heat and maintain a balanced water budget. Inefficient evaporative cooling, combined with limited thermal refugia, could indicate small mammal vulnerability to climate change.
Does a suspensory lifestyle result in increased tensile strength? Organ-level material properties of sloth limb bones
Summary: Sloth limb bones are more compliant in both compression and bending than those in upright mammalian taxa, suggesting modification for greater resistance to tensile limb loading related to their suspensory locomotion and posture. Novel data for suspensorial taxa expand understanding of the current range bone strength and elasticity properties for vertebrates.
Summary: When encoding goals in respect to landmarks, harbour seals choose the strategy depending on context but predominantly use a directional vector strategy.
Highlighted Article: Maneuvering performance decreases with body size in large whale species, but larger whales maneuver better than expected.