Cover: Dovekies rely on flying and diving to find and capture prey. At a breeding colony in East Greenland, Ste-Marie et al. (jeb243252) used accelerometers and the doubly labelled water method to model the energetic costs of both locomotory behaviours in this small Arctic seabird. Compared with the cost of flight, dive costs were found to be particularly high in this species, probably as a result of high non-mechanical costs such as those associated with thermoregulation. Photo credit: Eric Ste-Marie.
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Hearing without a tympanic ear
Summary: We explore the mechanisms of hearing in extant atympanate vertebrates and the implications for the early evolution of tympanate hearing.
Siberian hamsters nonresponding to short photoperiod use fasting-induced torpor
Summary: Photo-nonresponding hamsters use torpor or increase body temperature variability in response to fasting, which may allow them to cope with unpredictable, adverse environmental conditions.
Reproductive tradeoffs govern sexually dimorphic tubular lysosome induction in Caenorhabditis elegans
Highlighted Article: Male and hermaphrodite Caenorhabditis elegans induce intestinal tubular lysosomes by different mechanisms to accommodate their unique reproductive needs.
METHODS & TECHNIQUES
A brainstem preparation allowing simultaneous access to respiratory motor output and cellular properties of motoneurons in American bullfrogs
Summary: A brainstem preparation that allows recording of electrophysiological properties of motoneurons in the intact respiratory network as a new tool for mechanistic insights into breathing control across vertebrates.
Chemical manipulation of mitochondrial function affects metabolism of red carotenoids in a marine copepod (Tigriopus californicus)
Highlighted Article: Copepods treated with the mitochondria-targeted chemical 2-4-dinitrophenol show an increase in respiration rate and ketolation of astaxanthin. This suggests a potential connection between mitochondrial function and carotenoid metabolism.
How does mitochondrial function relate to thermogenic capacity and basal metabolic rate in small birds?
Summary: Cold acclimation of black-capped chickadees increases overall aerobic capacity of the pectoralis muscle and liver but this does not occur by simply upregulating mitochondrial proton leak or oxidative phosphorylation.
Acute thermal stress elicits interactions between gene expression and alternative splicing in a fish of conservation concern
Summary: Gene expression and alternative splicing interact in response to thermal stress in an imperilled fish, with implications for conservation and mechanisms of thermal tolerance in vertebrate ectotherms.
Evidence of learning walks related to scorpion home burrow navigation
Highlighted Article: Evidence that sand scorpions perform looping walks immediately after establishing a burrow and the possible significance of these putative learning walks in terms of scorpion navigation.
Is vertebral shape variability in caecilians (Amphibia: Gymnophiona) constrained by forces experienced during burrowing?
Summary: Forces experienced during burrowing drive shape variation in mid-trunk to posterior trunk vertebrae in caecilians.
Exercise and emersion in air, and recovery in seawater in the green crab (Carcinus maenas): metabolic, acid–base, cardio-ventilatory and ionoregulatory responses
Summary: Amphibious green crabs can perform prolonged exercise at low speed in air, but exhibit slow recovery in seawater, with carapace buffering and hyperventilation mitigating profound acidosis and excess post-exercise O2 consumption.
Interindividual variation in maximum aerobic metabolism varies with gill morphology and myocardial bioenergetics in Gulf killifish
Summary: Interindividual variation in whole-animal aerobic metabolism correlates with variation in subordinate traits related to the O2 transport cascade in fish.
Specialized androgen synthesis in skeletal muscles that actuate elaborate social displays
Highlighted Article: Enhanced androgen synthesis capabilities were identified in muscle muscles that actuate rapid social displays. This signature was also found in non-display muscles that operate exceeding fast speeds.
Electrocommunication signals and aggressive behavior vary among male morphs in an apteronotid fish, Compsaraia samueli
Summary: Social context influences the use of agonistic electrocommunication signals during non-breeding aggression in a knifefish with extreme variation in jaw length.
Accelerating animal energetics: high dive costs in a small seabird disrupt the dynamic body acceleration–energy expenditure relationship
Summary: As an Arctic nesting species and one of the world's smallest marine endotherms, dovekies experience very high dive costs according to energy expenditure models using accelerometer-derived time budgets.
Activation of p53 in anoxic freshwater crayfish, Faxonius virilis
Summary: Analysis of p53 regulation and its effect on pro-survival pathways in crayfish reveals p53 activation in response to DNA damage during anoxia that promotes apoptosis.
A therian mammal with sprawling kinematics? Gait and 3D forelimb X-ray motion analysis in tamanduas
Summary: When tamanduas are walking and balancing, forelimb kinematics are comparable to other therian quadrupedal mammals, but lateral rotation of the spine in the pectoral region resembles the kinematics of sprawling (e.g., lizard-like) locomotion; tamanduas also increase diagonality on more challenging supports.
Cardiac mitochondrial energetics of the Australasian red spiny lobster, Jasus edwardsii, when exposed to isoeugenol within the commercial anaesthetic AQUI-S
Summary: The anaesthetic isoeugenol – used to manage aquatic animals – targets respiratory complex I in lobster cardiac mitochondria, but does not impact complex II.
Thermogenesis is supported by high rates of circulatory fatty acid and triglyceride delivery in highland deer mice
Highlighted Article: Highland and cold-hypoxia acclimated deer mice show greater capacities to deliver fatty acids and triglycerides to thermo-effector tissue during maximal cold challenge compared with lowlanders and warm normoxia-acclimated deer mice, respectively.
New funding schemes for junior faculty staff
In celebration of our 100th anniversary, JEB has launched two new grants to support junior faculty staff working in animal comparative physiology and biomechanics who are within five years of setting up their first lab/research group. Check out our ECR Visiting Fellowships and Research Partnership Kickstart Travel Grants. First deadline for applications is 15 July 2023.
JEB@100: an interview with Monitoring Editor Sanjay Sane
Sanjay Sane tells us about his first experience of publishing with the journal and why he thinks JEB is going to play a key role in our understanding of the current climate crisis and its implications for biodiversity.
The Forest of Biologists
The Forest of Biologists is a biodiversity initiative created by The Company of Biologists, with support from the Woodland Trust. For every Research and Review article published in Journal of Experimental Biology a native tree is planted in a UK forest. In addition to this we are protecting and restoring ancient woodland and are dedicating these trees to our peer reviewers. Visit our virtual forest to learn more.
Celebrating 100 years of discovery
This Special Issue focuses on broad biological questions addressed through the lens of comparative biomechanics. Crosscutting through time, this series of Reviews, Commentaries and Research Articles addresses questions from the vantage points of the history of the field, today’s research, and the future of comparative biomechanics. Read the Editorial by Sheila Patek, Monica Daley and Sanjay Sane.
Centenary Review - Adaptive echolocation behavior
Cynthia F. Moss and colleagues Review the behaviours used by echolocating mammals to track and intercept moving prey, interrogate dynamic sonar scenes, and exploit visual and passive acoustic stimuli.
Lack of oxygen curtails vision in red-eared sliders
When red-eared sliders sink to the bottom of a frozen pond for winter they reduce many biological systems to minimum life support, but now Michael Ariel and colleagues show that the reptiles temporarily lose their sight due to lack of oxygen but retain hearing.