Physiological responses of freshwater insects to salinity: molecular-, cellular- and organ-level studies
Summary: This Review considers the effect of salt-contaminated freshwater on the osmoregulatory physiology of freshwater insects across the organizational hierarchy from the molecular to organ levels.
Summary: Odontocete cetaceans lack the genetic and biochemical ability to perform ketogenesis.
Summary: Contrast between small targets, such as prey or body markings, and the background control the ability of the common sunfish to distinguish these features or targets.
Highlighted Article: Decreasing prolactin levels facilitates rejection responses towards brood parasitic eggs in Eurasian blackbirds.
Laser ablation of the apical sensory organ of Hydroides elegans (Polychaeta) does not inhibit detection of metamorphic cues
Summary: Larvae of the polychaete Hydroides elegans retain the capacity to sense biofilm cues and metamorphose despite removal of their apical sensory organs, the supposed sensors for settlement cues.
Summary: UV sensitivity in bird eyes is determined by the transmittances of the cornea and lens. Pigmentation could explain some of the variation. Phylogenetically related birds are likely to have similar transmittance.
Acoustic deterrents influence foraging activity, flight and echolocation behaviour of free-flying bats
Highlighted Article: Using novel flight path tracking and acoustic methods, we show that bats alter their activity, foraging and echolocation behaviour in response to an acoustic deterrent.
Summary: Bone conduction hearing enables salamanders to extract directional cues from airborne sound pressure in the absence of an impedance-matching tympanic middle ear.
Highlighted Article: Migrating nightjars show vertical displacements at low rates throughout migratory flights, indicating regular adjustments of flight altitude while maintaining flapping flight.
Summary: Variation in body temperature of tree swallows suggests some individuals may be better at coping with climate-related heat stress.
Summary: Exposure to an alarm pheromone increases both speed and accuracy of the response to recognition cues in ants.
Myogenic contraction of a somatic muscle powers rhythmic flow of hemolymph through Drosophila antennae and generates brain pulsations
Summary: The circulation of hemolymph in the antenna of Drosophila is powered by the rhythmic contraction of an auto-active somatic muscle which runs through the brain.
The role of California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) hindflippers as aquatic control surfaces for maneuverability
Summary: Analysis of the biomechanic function of sea lion hindflippers as aquatic control surfaces during underwater maneuvering: the structure of the hindflippers indicates they operate as biological delta-wings.
Is maternal thyroid hormone deposition subject to a trade-off between self and egg because of iodine? An experimental study in rock pigeon
Summary: Restricted dietary iodine in captive rock pigeons reduces egg production in some females, thus inducing a trade-off between offspring quality and offspring quantity.
Summary: Flying snakes use a take-off behavior associated with gliding to cross horizontal gaps, avoiding a torque limitation associated with other crossing behaviors and substantially increasing their gap-bridging performance.
Stress in paradise: effects of elevated corticosterone on immunity and avian malaria resilience in a Hawaiian passerine
Summary: Amakihi innate immunity, as measured by natural antibodies and leukocytes, is not sensitive to changes in corticosterone, but high circulating corticosterone may reduce the ability of Amakihi to cope with avian malaria infection via its effects on hematocrit and malaria parasite load.
Summary: Fluid-mediated adhesion seen in animals such as ladybird beetles allows them to attach to surfaces not just in air but also in underwater conditions.
Time-varying motor control strategy for proximal-to-distal sequential energy distribution: insights from baseball pitching
Summary: The motor control strategy of the proximal-to-distal sequential motion during baseball pitching involves the muscular and interactive torque effects contributing to the energy generation and transfer mechanisms.