Summary: Integrative models composed of multiple cause-and-effect hypotheses may rapidly uncover the mechanisms setting organismal thermal limits.
Lower leg morphology in runners: forefoot strikers have longer heels but not bigger muscles than rearfoot strikers
Summary: Muscle contraction dynamics during forefoot strike running may balance the effects of longer plantarflexor moment arm lengths in determining medial and lateral gastrocnemius muscle size.
Highlighted Article: Through physiological and biochemical analysis, a previously undescribed orbital lipid depot discovered in the thirteen-lined ground squirrel is hypothesized to be a vascular rete.
Summary: In zebrafish, carbohydrate and lipid were the major fuels during fasting, but carbohydrate oxidation increased immediately after feeding, while protein usage predominated at later times.
Summary: Destructive bark beetles use a spring-loaded mechanism to produce variable songs.
Highlighted Article: New evidence shows that elaborate pupils, such as those found in benthic elasmobranchs (e.g. skates), may aid in camouflaging the eye.
METHODS & TECHNIQUES
Summary: Field-based physiological hearing measurements of a puffin and murre show they hear like other birds. The method provides clear responses, reduced environmental noise and is transferrable to other avian taxa.
Summary: The relationship between swimming mode, turning behavior and energetic costs in coral reef fishes is examined for station-hold swimming in wave-induced water motions.
Threshold effect in the H2O2 production of skeletal muscle mitochondria during fasting and refeeding
Summary: In ducklings, skeletal muscle mitochondrial ROS release remains low until a threshold level of mitochondrial inactivity is exceeded.
Summary: Migration speed of wild Nathusius' bats conforms with expected optimal travel speed inferred from measurements of metabolic rate in conspecifics flying in a wind tunnel.
Mechanical properties of the wave-swept kelp Egregia menziesii change with season, growth rate and herbivore wounds
Summary: Responses of kelp material properties to season, growth and wounds help kelp survive a wide range of flow conditions in their lifetimes.
Bee and floral traits affect the characteristics of the vibrations experienced by flowers during buzz pollination
Highlighted Article: Buzz-pollinating bumblebees differ in the type of vibrations produced while visiting the same flower, and floral species affects the transmission properties of those vibrations.
Drosophila female fertility and juvenile hormone metabolism depends on the type of Wolbachia infection
Summary: The type of Wolbachia infection determines its effect on Drosophila melanogaster female fecundity via metabolism of juvenile hormone.
Antioxidant response to acute cold exposure and during recovery in juvenile Chinese soft-shelled turtles (Pelodiscus sinensis)
Summary: Antioxidant defense regulation in response to acute cold exposure in the Chinese soft-shelled turtle is not achieved at the transcriptional level, but rather by high constitutive antioxidant enzyme activities.
Summary: Intense turbulence causes echinoid larvae to become suddenly and permanently responsive to chemical settlement cues in a situation reminiscent of long-term potentiation in learning and memory.
Rapid adjustment of pecking trajectory to prism-induced visual shifts in crows as compared with pigeons
Highlighted Article: The visuomotor control of avian pecking is poorly understood. Visual distortion caused by prisms indicates that vision plays a role in pecking adjustments only before movement initiation in pigeons, whereas crows may use vison during movement.
Summary: Forward flight speed of flies, while flying in a magnetically levitated (MAGLEV) flight mill, is controlled by body pitch and a collection of wing kinematic variables.
Complementary roles of photoperiod and temperature in environmental sex determination in Daphnia spp.
Summary: Male sex determination in daphnids is controlled by photoperiod and temperature, which may act by increasing levels of the Met subunit of the methyl farnesoate receptor.
How moles destroy your lawn: the forelimb kinematics of eastern moles in loose and compact substrates
Summary: The combination of stereotypic movements of the shoulder joint and flexibility in the elbow and carpal joints makes eastern moles extremely effective diggers in both loose and compact substrates.
Contrasting response of haematological variables between long-term training and short exercise bouts in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata)
Summary: Zebra finches show differential responses in erythrocyte variables to long- and short-term physical activity. Short-term phenotypic flexibility in red blood cell size probably influences blood properties and blood functions.
Highlighted Article: White sharks aggregating near seal colonies swim slowly and employ unpowered gliding in descents, presumably to reduce energetic cost of swimming while increasing encounter rates with fast-swimming seals.
Population history with invasive predators predicts innate immune function response to early-life glucocorticoid exposure in lizards
Summary: Historical, population-level exposure to invasive predatory fire ants (and associated stress) affects the immune consequences of early-life exposure to a stress-relevant hormone.