Summary: Recent evidence shows animals use polarised light, as well as colour, to signal each other. This is a critical review of this new area in animal vision and ecology.
Summary: Animals classify stimuli to generate appropriate motor actions; aversive responses to a small object in Drosophila melanogaster are driven in part by processes that elicit signed saccades with distinct dynamics and trigger mechanisms.
Summary: Effects of food deprivation on three behavioural traits – risk taking, exploratory activity and solitariness – as well as the relationships between them, in juvenile sea bass.
Summary: Corn snake yolk contains all the nutrients required for embryonic development but embryonic exploitation of calcium from eggshells enriches hatchling calcium content and results in larger hatchlings.
Studies on gas exchange in the meadow spittlebug, Philaenus spumarius: the metabolic cost of feeding on, and living in, xylem sap
Editors' Choice: Spittlebugs snorkel to breathe atmospheric O2 while submerged in a foam of excreted xylem sap. The metabolic cost associated with sucking xylem sap from the plant is surprisingly low.
Alanine, proline and urea are major organic osmolytes in the snail Theodoxus fluviatilis under hyperosmotic stress
Summary: Although alanine and proline play a crucial role in osmoregulation under hyperosmotic stress in both freshwater and brackish water Theodoxus fluviatilis snails, they differ in their mechanisms of organic osmolyte accumulation and the importance of urea in the process of osmoregulation.
Bone without minerals and its secondary mineralization in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): the recovery from phosphorus deficiency
Summary: In Atlantic salmon fed a phosphorous-deficient diet, new bone is devoid of minerals. Bone formation and mineralization become uncoupled. Non-mineralized bone is functional and retains the capacity to mineralize.
Neuroligin tuning of pharyngeal pumping reveals extrapharyngeal modulation of feeding in Caenorhabditis elegans
Summary: The integration of distinct sensory modalities is essential for behavioural decision making. In C. elegans neuroligin organizes extrapharyngeal microcircuits to modulate the food trigger response.
Starvation resistance is associated with developmentally specified changes in sleep, feeding and metabolic rate
Summary: Drosophila melanogaster selected for starvation resistance take longer to develop and exhibit development-specific changes in traits associated with the accumulation and conservation of energy stores.
Sound localization behavior in Drosophila melanogaster depends on inter-antenna vibration amplitude comparisons
Highlighted Article: Walking Drosophila melanogaster steer toward sounds to their front, but away from sounds to their rear. These behaviors are explained by a simple rule: flies steer away from the antenna with the larger vibration amplitude.
Summary: Naked mole rats enter into a coma-like state upon reoxygenation following severe hypoxia but do not pay off an oxygen debt.
Summary: Lymnaea display higher-order learning, including configural learning, which is the ability to give new meaning to a stimulus as a result of experiencing stimuli simultaneously.
Summary: Hummingbirds flying through intense upward gusts experience pronounced downward pitching motions (i.e. nose dives). In response, they interrupt flapping, hold the wings dorsally, and angle and fan the tail.
Dynamics of pleasure–displeasure at the limit of exercise tolerance: conceptualizing the sense of exertional physical fatigue as an affective response
Summary: A new conceptualization of the sense of exertional physical fatigue, a universal human trait the nature and the neurobiological origins of which are commonly described in the literature as an enigma.
Kinematic signatures of prey capture from archival tags reveal sex differences in killer whale foraging activity
Highlighted Article: A method to identify subsurface prey capture by stereotyped movement signatures of fish-eating killer whales recorded on bio-logging tags reveals sex differences in foraging behavior.
Highlighted Article: Bats base roost emergence decisions on the acoustic component of rainfall, indicating that noise can serve as an important informational cue in decision-making.
Summary: Fin-biting cichlids in Lake Malawi exhibit a lateralized preference for side of attack. Predatory fish aiming for prey that show escape behaviours may frequently present lateralized behaviour in predation.
Summary: Tarsal wrapping in harvestmen permits a secure foothold on smooth cylindrical objects despite the lack of adhesive foot pads.
Summary: Cold exposure in the thirteen-lined ground squirrel appears to be a primary regulator of white adipose tissue but brown adipose tissue may exhibit an endogenous circannual rhythm in terms of depot volume.
Summary: Bold crabs were more aggressive than shy crabs, and the differences in energy metabolism affected their performance in terms of personality traits and agonistic behaviour.
A lethal fungal pathogen directly alters tight junction proteins in the skin of a susceptible amphibian
Summary: The deadly fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, responsible for worldwide amphibian declines, was found to increase skin permeability and alter the tight junction complex in Australian green tree frogs.
Summary: Microbial urease activity in the gut fluid and epithelia of elasmobranchs plays an important role in producing ammonia from urea for absorption in the digestive tract.