Cover: Diamondback terrapins (Malaclemys terrapin) experience a broad range of salinities in their coastal habitats. Williard and colleagues (jeb202390) investigated the effects of salinity on osmotic status, body fluid dynamics and metabolic rate of terrapins across a range of seasonally relevant temperatures. Terrapins primarily relied on energetically efficient behavioural adjustments, such as reducing rates of water and salt exchange with the environment, to defend osmotic homeostasis when faced with an acute increase in salinity. Terrapins are a species of conservation concern and additional studies to assess the implications of their osmoregulatory strategy for habitat utilization and resilience are warranted. Photo credit: Stephanie Nadeau.
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Within-individual behavioural variability and division of labour in social insects
Summary: This Commentary discusses the sources of within-individual behavioural variability in social insects and considers the relationship between colony size and behavioural flexibility.
Differential glycogen utilization in shark acid- and base-regulatory gill cells
Summary: Shark gill acid–base regulatory cells contain large intracellular glycogen stores that are differentially utilized and replenished during acid–base stress.
Food-derived volatiles enhance consumption in Drosophila melanogaster
Summary: Fruit flies integrate diverse olfactory and gustatory cues to guide feeding decisions, including situations in which animals are confronted with stimuli of opposite valence.
Eccentric resistance training and β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate free acid affects muscle PGC-1α expression and serum irisin, nesfatin-1 and resistin in rats
Summary: Eccentric resistance training and HMB-FA supplementation may induce crosstalk between peptide release from other tissues and increase maximal muscle strength; the combination of the two interventions has a greater effect than either does alone.
UV light perception is modulated by the odour element of an olfactory–visual compound in restrained honeybees
Summary: Honeybees solve cross-modal positive- and negative-patterning experiments with olfactory–visual compounds. These interactions are wavelength dependent, supporting a distinct processing pathway for UV compared with other wavelengths.
A songbird compensates for wing molt during escape flights by reducing the molt gap and increasing angle of attack
Highlighted Article: To compensate for the detrimental aerodynamic effect of wing molt on flight, upward escaping pied flycatchers reduce the molt gap size and increase the angle of attack of the wing.
Changes in vitellogenin expression caused by nematodal and fungal infections in insects
Highlighted Article: Nematodal infection and fungal infection cause changes in insect vitellogenin mRNA and protein expression: vitellogenin inhibits the growth of entomotoxic bacteria from the nematode Steinernema carpocapsae.
Goats decrease hindlimb stiffness when walking over compliant surfaces
Summary: Evidence that goats adjust the stiffness of their hindlimbs when walking on hard and soft surfaces, shedding light on their ability to thrive in variable environments.
The neuropeptide CCHamide2 regulates diuresis in the Chagas disease vector Rhodnius prolixus
Summary: The neuropeptide RhoprCCHamide2 has a dual diuretic effect, enhancing the serotonin-induced secretion by Malpighian tubules, and inhibiting serotonin-induced absorption across the anterior midgut in Rhodnius prolixus.
Effects of temperature and salinity on body fluid dynamics and metabolism in the estuarine diamondback terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin)
Summary: Estuarine diamondback terrapins maintain osmotic balance under variable salinity conditions by using energetically efficient behavioral adjustments and water conservation strategies.
Plastic changes in brain morphology in relation to learning and environmental enrichment in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata)
Summary: Modifications of the brain can occur as a form of adaptation to environmental conditions. Environmental enrichment was found to influence relative brain size in guppies.
Reproductive fitness of Drosophila is maximised by optimal developmental temperature
Summary: Developmental acclimation does not necessarily enhance reproductive fitness in Drosophila melanogaster; instead, the highest fitness is achieved by development at an optimal temperature.
Water and ion transport across the eversible vesicles in the collophore of the springtail Orchesella cincta
Summary: An inverse Ramsay assay and electrophysiology demonstrate that the eversible vesicles in the collophore of springtails absorb water and transport Na+, K+, Cl−, H+ and NH4+.
The gastric sieve of penaeid shrimp species is a sub-micrometer nutrient filter
Summary: Morphological and histological investigation, in conjunction with feeding experiments using fluorescent microbeads, reveals the size exclusion limit of the gastric sieve of penaeid shrimp to be substantially less than 1 µm.
Voltages and resistances of the anterior Malpighian tubule of Drosophila melanogaster
Summary: Conventional microelectrodes and cable analysis yield first measurements of electrical resistance in Drosophila melanogaster Malpighian tubules.
Repeated stimulation of the pituitary–adrenal axis alters offspring phenotype of a wild passerine
Summary: Developmental stress has negative effects on pied flycatcher offspring growth and physiology, but may have short-term benefits on performance by enhancing antipredator behaviour.
Effects of gut microbiota transfer on emotional reactivity in Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica)
Summary: A gut microbiota transfer influences emotional reactivity in Japanese quails, supporting the existence of a microbiota–gut–brain axis in birds.
Functional characterisation of two Δ12-desaturases demonstrates targeted production of linoleic acid as pheromone precursor in Nasonia
Summary: Two Δ12-desaturases from the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis synthesise linoleic acid. One is expressed in the male rectal vesicle where they produce a sex pheromone from linoleic acid.
Parabronchial remodeling in chicks in response to embryonic hypoxia
Summary: Hypoxia during embryonic development induces parabronchial remodeling in chicks, favoring structures involved in gas exchange (air and blood capillaries) at the expense of air-conducting structures (parabronchial lumen and atria).
Maternal exercise before and during gestation modifies liver and muscle mitochondria in rat offspring
Summary: The intrauterine environment impacts the lifetime health of offspring; an animal model of maternal physical activity during pregnancy shows major modifications in offspring liver and muscle mitochondria.
Prenatal independent and combined effects of yolk vitamin E and corticosterone on embryo growth and oxidative status in the yellow-legged gull
Summary: Vitamin E and corticosterone apparently have antagonistic effects on body growth in yellow-legged gull embryos but vitamin E is not limiting.
Resource profitability, but not caffeine, affects individual and collective foraging in the stingless bee Plebeia droryana
Highlighted Article: Caffeine does not cause Plebeia droryana to increase foraging frequency, recruitment and persistence; instead, higher sugar concentrations cause bees to increase foraging effort.
Vision is highly sensitive to oxygen availability in marine invertebrate larvae
Editors' Choice: Reduced oxygen availability decreases retinal sensitivity and temporal resolution in marine invertebrate larvae, which may impact visual behaviors crucial to survival and increase vulnerability of species to ocean oxygen loss.
New funding schemes for junior faculty staff
In celebration of our 100th anniversary, JEB has launched two new grants to support junior faculty staff working in animal comparative physiology and biomechanics who are within five years of setting up their first lab/research group. Check out our ECR Visiting Fellowships and Research Partnership Kickstart Travel Grants. First deadline for applications is 15 July 2023.
JEB@100: an interview with Monitoring Editor Sanjay Sane
Sanjay Sane tells us about his first experience of publishing with the journal and why he thinks JEB is going to play a key role in our understanding of the current climate crisis and its implications for biodiversity.
The Forest of Biologists
The Forest of Biologists is a biodiversity initiative created by The Company of Biologists, with support from the Woodland Trust. For every Research and Review article published in Journal of Experimental Biology a native tree is planted in a UK forest. In addition to this we are protecting and restoring ancient woodland and are dedicating these trees to our peer reviewers. Visit our virtual forest to learn more.
Celebrating 100 years of discovery
This Special Issue focuses on broad biological questions addressed through the lens of comparative biomechanics. Crosscutting through time, this series of Reviews, Commentaries and Research Articles addresses questions from the vantage points of the history of the field, today’s research, and the future of comparative biomechanics. Read the Editorial by Sheila Patek, Monica Daley and Sanjay Sane.
Centenary Review - Adaptive echolocation behavior
Cynthia F. Moss and colleagues Review the behaviours used by echolocating mammals to track and intercept moving prey, interrogate dynamic sonar scenes, and exploit visual and passive acoustic stimuli.
Crucial DNA at crux of insect wing size evolution
Keity Farfán-Pira and colleagues have revealed that a tiny region of regulatory DNA in the vestigial gene governs whether insect wings are large or small and has played a key role in the evolution of insect wing size.