Summary: Insects display an astonishing diversity of respiratory patterns that have so far eluded unifying explanations. Here, we discuss possible reasons thereof and potential paths forward to resolving this.
Eco-immunology in the cold: the role of immunity in shaping the overwintering survival of ectotherms
Summary: Immune investment shapes energy budgeting and survival upon infection in overwintering ectotherms, but can we predict how changing winters will modify immunity and its role in winter survival?
Summary: We review how obesity affects skeletal muscle function, thereby reducing mobility and quality of life and exacerbating the ageing process.
Hypoxia-inducible transcription factors in fish: expression, function and interconnection with the circadian clock
Summary: The paper summarizes our current knowledge on hypoxia inducible transcription factors in fish and discusses the interconnection of the Hif signalling pathway with the circadian clock.
Summary: Hermit crabs prefer shells that are matched to the brightness of their background but make a trade-off between the benefits of camouflaged shells and the danger associated with switching shells.
Highlighted Article: Little auks use suction feeding when catching copepods to meet their high daily energy requirements and this may facilitate a higher resilience to the consequences of arctic climate change.
Summary: Simulated maximized work loops closely predict experimental joint power during maximal voluntary cycling, demonstrating that, like birds and fish, humans are capable of maximizing muscle power.
Stumbling corrective reaction elicited by mechanical and electrical stimulation of the saphenous nerve in walking mice
Summary: Electrical stimulation of the saphenous nerve during locomotion elicits phase-dependent stumbling corrective reaction (SCR) by activating distal flexor muscles similar to mechanically induced SCR.
Turning workers into false queens: the role of exogenous pheromones in regulating reproduction in worker honey bees
Summary: Carrying amounts of exogenous pheromone can induce pheromone production in the carrier, resulting in the production of false queens within experimental groups.
Phenotypic plasticity of Drosophila suzukii wing to developmental temperature: implications for flight
Summary: The effect of wing plasticity to developmental temperature on flight was studied in Drosophila suzukii. Results indicate that cold-reared flies are capable of faster flight. The role of wing shape and size is discussed, along with the adaptive role of phenotypic plasticity.
The Mauthner cell in a fish with top-performance and yet flexibly tuned C-starts. I. Identification and comparative morphology
Summary: A pair of large Mauthner cells with striking morphological similarity to those of goldfish is present in the fast-start system of archerfish, a fish capable of precisely tuned high-performance C-starts.
Summary: The archerfish Mauthner neuron does not differ from that of goldfish in any hallmark physiological properties, a finding that questions current views on the role of these giant reticulospinal cells.
Summary: The voluntary dive response in pinnipeds is driven primarily by apnea and intensified by increased facial immersion and decreased water temperature.
High resting metabolic rates with low thermal dependence induce active dives in overwintering Pacific juvenile loggerhead turtles
Summary: Active dives of juvenile loggerhead turtles in the western North Pacific during the winter period are driven by a high resting metabolic rate.
Highlighted Article: Anti-inflammatory properties in the serum of seals could protect these deep divers from negative downstream effects of lung collapse and bubble formation.
Summary: A complementary mechanism of relative foot positioning and mediolateral foot roll-off adapts to continuously imposed gait asymmetry to maintain dynamic balance in human bipedal gait.
Environmental history impacts gene expression during diapause development in the alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata
Summary: Gene expression during diapause development in Megachile rotundata is impacted by environmental history and is highly variable between individual overwintering prepupae.
Growth hormone transgenesis in coho salmon disrupts muscle immune function impacting cross-talk with growth systems
Summary: Growth hormone transgenesis in coho salmon alters the immune response of skeletal muscle, leading to a disruption in normal cross-talk between the growth and immune systems.
Summary: Impacts of ocean acidification on eggs and sperm of two sea urchin congeners differ, pointing to the advantage conveyed by evolution of large eggs.
Maternally derived yolk antioxidants buffer the developing avian embryo against oxidative stress induced by hyperoxia
Summary: The avian yolk bears the burden of an elevated oxidative challenge, without the embryo having to compromise its endogenous antioxidant supply or suffer oxidative damage itself.
Summary: Individual scouts of a termite-hunting ant species are capable of walking the fastest path to a food source rather than the shortest.
Holding tight to feathers – structural specializations and attachment properties of the avian ectoparasite Crataerina pallida (Diptera, Hippoboscidae)
Highlighted Article: The avian ectoparasitic fly Crataerina pallida (Diptera, Hippoboscidae) can stay attached to its flying host, the common swift, by using a strongly modified tarsal attachment system, which provides exceptionally high attachment forces on various surfaces.