Summary: Anatomical and physiological responses to diving in seals are described. It is argued that the responses seen in forced dives and those seen during free dives are basically the same.
Summary: This paper presents a review of the ecology, biomechanics and evolution of bipedal hopping in mammals, with a focus on why bipedal hopping has arisen in multiple clades of mammals.
Kleptoplast photoacclimation state modulates the photobehaviour of the solar-powered sea slug Elysia viridis
Summary: Light preference and the position of the lateral folds (parapodia) of the solar-powered sea slug Elysia viridis are modulated by the light history of chloroplasts acquired from macroalgae.
Alteration of size perception: serotonin has opposite effects on the aggressiveness of crayfish confronting either a smaller or a larger rival
Highlighted Article: Serotonin in crayfish is able to alter the perception of a rival, leading to paradoxical consequences for aggressiveness.
Summary: A new statistical model quantifies how methodology, heat stress and acclimation influence estimates of critical temperatures.
Selection for relative brain size affects context-dependent male preference for, but not discrimination of, female body size in guppies
Summary: Brain size and cognitive ability play a key role in mating decisions.
Structural and functional characterization of the contractile aorta and associated hemocytes of the mosquito Anopheles gambiae
Summary: Structural mechanics of hemolymph flow through the aorta and conical chamber of the African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae.
Non-linear amplification of graded voltage signals in the first-order visual interneurons of the butterfly Papilio xuthus
Summary: LMCs in the visual system of Papilio xuthus use two information-coding strategies: a graded coding and a mixed coding involving action-potential like spikes. Use of spikes depends on light level.
Locomotor muscle fibre heterogeneity and metabolism in the fastest large-bodied rorqual: the fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus)
Summary: The fin whale locomotor muscle shows an adaptive functional specialization which explains its unique feeding behaviour and swimming performance.
X-ray computed tomography study of the flight-adapted tracheal system in the blowfly Calliphora vicina, analysing the ventilation mechanism and flow-directing valves
Summary: Tracheal ventilation in blowflies is driven by the flight muscles, deforming the mesonotal air sacs, which results in a unidirectional airflow channelled by two antagonistically working passive valves.
Summary: Laboratory mice show great variability in the expression of daily torpor, even among littermates; this variation may reflect the long-term influence of growth hysteresis prior to birth.
Summary: In vivo and ex vivo empirical data of Japanese macaque phonation suggest universal physical and physiological principles of voice production in humans and non-human primates.
Avian thermoregulation in the heat: metabolism, evaporative cooling and gular flutter in two small owls
Summary: Small desert owls demonstrate heat tolerance intermediate between that of very heat-tolerant nightjars and less heat-tolerant passerines. The gular flutter mechanism contributes significantly to cooling efficiency.
Editor's Choice: Polar bears and grizzly bears exhibit a greater economy while moving at slow speeds as a consequence of their plantigrade posture.
Odour discrimination learning in the Indian greater short-nosed fruit bat (Cynopterus sphinx): differential expression of Egr-1, C-fos and PP-1 in the olfactory bulb, amygdala and hippocampus
Summary: Differential expression of c-Fos in the hippocampus and amygdala through odour-mediated regulation of PP-1 may contribute to olfactory learning and memory in Cynopterus sphinx.
Central nervous system shutdown underlies acute cold tolerance in tropical and temperate Drosophila species
Highlighted Article: Cold exposure causes Drosophila to enter a comatose state as a result of the loss of central nervous system function. This is associated with a spreading depolarization and the ability to prevent this underlies acute cold tolerance.
Paralytic hypo-energetic state facilitates anoxia tolerance despite ionic imbalance in adult Drosophila melanogaster
Summary: Adult Drosophila melanogaster survive anoxic exposure by maintaining ATP at 3% of normal and tolerating a drastic disruption of ion balance.
Digestive and locomotor capacity show opposing responses to changing food availability in an ambush predatory fish
Summary: Southern catfish downregulate digestive function and metabolic rate during food deprivation, but regain digestive capacity during refeeding, potentially at the cost of decreased swimming performance.