Linking the ‘why’ and ‘how’ of ageing: evidence for somatotropic control of long-term memory function in the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis
Summary: Natural selection optimizes the way organisms spend their limiting resources on growth, reproduction and survival. We tie this process to learning performance in a snail model of neuronal ageing.
METHODS & TECHNIQUES
Giving invertebrates an eye exam: an ophthalmoscope that utilizes the autofluorescence of photoreceptors
Summary: We describe a micro-ophthalmoscope that takes advantage of autofluorescent properties of invertebrate photoreceptors and allows for in vivo testing of refractive errors in small arthropod eyes.
Silencing and augmentation of IAG hormone transcripts in adult Macrobrachium rosenbergii males affects morphotype transformation
Summary: Morphotype transformation in adult Macrobrachium rosenbergii males from orange to blue claw on augmentation of insulin-like androgenic gland hormone.
Summary: The regulation and molecular evolution of pigmentation in crustaceans is more complex than initially thought, with multiple lineage-specific duplications and functional redundancy in shrimp pigmentation genes.
Characterizing Chilean blue whale vocalizations with DTAGs: a test of using tag accelerometers for caller identification
Summary: Characterization of the Chilean blue whale vocal repertoire and a modified method of using DTAG accelerometers to identify calling blue whales.
Summary: Honeybee workers tend larvae around the clock; capped brood that is not fed, but not brood pheromones, attracts similar around-the-clock tending by individually isolated ‘nurse’ bees.
Modulation of muscle–tendon interaction in the human triceps surae during an energy dissipation task
Summary: During a simple landing task, the compliance of elastic structures and muscle activity modulate energy absorption and dissipation via active lengthening of the triceps surae fascicles.
Lack of behavioural responses of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) indicate limited effectiveness of sonar mitigation
Highlighted Article: Variation in behavioural responses of humpback whales limits the effectiveness of a ramp-up procedure used to mitigate physiological effects of naval sonar on marine animals.
Circannual testis and moult cycles persist under photoperiods that disrupt circadian activity and clock gene cycles in spotted munia
Summary: The prevailing light environment and circadian clock do not control circannual timing of reproductive phenotypes in spotted munia, suggesting independent circadian and circannual rhythm generation in seasonally breeding species.
Lower limb biomechanical analysis during an unanticipated step on a bump reveals specific adaptations of walking on uneven terrains
Summary: Investigation of an unanticipated step on uneven ground reveals two distinct adaptive strategies: an ankle-based strategy when stepping with the forefoot, and a hip-based strategy when stepping with the rearfoot.
Summary: Active muscles from mice with a small titin deletion exhibit large deficits in net negative work, suggesting that titin contributes to energy storage and dissipation during stretch–shortening cycles.
Highlighted Article: When exposed to progressive hypoxia, bar-headed geese (biannual high-altitude migrators) increase ventilation and heart rate, whereas Andean geese (lifelong high-altitude residents) increase lung oxygen extraction and cardiac stroke volume.
Disentangling drivers of reproductive performance in urban great tits: a food supplementation experiment
Summary: Food supplementation could have a negative impact on breeding performance of wild urban great tits.
Summary: Having high numbers of midgut symbionts may bring costs to a host organism, which is a crucial finding for understanding the evolution of host–symbiont interactions.
It's not all black and white: visual scene parameters influence optokinetic reflex performance in Xenopus laevis tadpoles
Highlighted Article: Gaze-stabilizing optokinetic reflexes in Xenopus laevis tadpoles are systematically influenced by the parameters of the visual scene, likely because of properties of retinal motion processing.
Transparent anemone shrimp (Ancylomenes pedersoni) become opaque after exercise and physiological stress in correlation with increased hemolymph perfusion
Summary: Transparency in shrimp is reversibly disrupted after exposure to physiological or environmental stressors; the increase in opacity is associated with a corresponding increase in hemolymph perfusion to the abdominal musculature.
The effects of pH and Pi on tension and Ca2+ sensitivity of ventricular myofilaments from the anoxia-tolerant painted turtle
Summary: Myofilament contractility of turtle ventricle is more sensitive to physiological levels of acidosis than to increased inorganic phosphate. The myofilament calcium sensitivities of ventricles from turtles and other ectotherms are similar.
Swimming with multiple propulsors: measurement and comparison of swimming gaits in three species of neotropical cichlids
Summary: Differently shaped fish species use varying combinations of body–caudal fin and pectoral fin propulsion at different speeds. Gait is characterized as a trajectory through propulsive parameter space for analysis and comparison.
Elastic ankle muscle–tendon interactions are adjusted to produce acceleration during walking in humans
Summary: A novel mechanism is presented by which human ankle muscles use their elastic tendons to contribute mechanical work and produce acceleration during walking gait.
Cold tolerance of Drosophila species is tightly linked to the epithelial K+ transport capacity of the Malpighian tubules and rectal pads
Summary: The scanning ion-selective electrode technique reveals that cold tolerance in Drosophila is linked to the ability to maintain ion balance through adaptive changes in epithelial K+ transport.
Summary: Turtles share auditory brainstem connectivity with other reptiles, as well as birds, and encode interaural time differences in the nucleus laminaris.
Summary: Tests on the effects of experimentally increased foraging effort on a suite of physiological metrics in a small passerine provide evidence for physiological adjustments and cost of high workload associated with foraging.
Thermal history and gape of individual Mytilus californianus correlate with oxidative damage and thermoprotective osmolytes
Highlighted Article: Variation in thermal experience and behavior contributes to inter-individual physiological variation within intertidal mussel beds, providing valuable insight into physiological plasticity and variable costs of defending against environmental stress.
Multimodal in situ datalogging quantifies inter-individual variation in thermal experience and persistent origin effects on gaping behavior among intertidal mussels (Mytilus californianus)
Summary: Biologging of mussels in the rocky intertidal zone reveals substantial temperature differences over the scale of centimeters, while environmental conditions and mussel origin underlie variation in shell gaping behavior.