Summary: Despite historical controversy, ankle push-off primarily contributes to both leg swing and center of mass acceleration during walking. Interpretation of ankle mechanics should abandon an either/or contrast of these mutually consistent effects.
Summary: We describe the physiological challenge of increased production of reactive species confronted by birds during migration, and the interacting roles of antioxidants in protecting birds from oxidative damage.
METHODS & TECHNIQUES
Summary: Electroantennography allows the recording of the global chemoreceptor response from the antennal appendages, and is developed here for studies on marine shrimp in aqueous conditions.
Summary: New motion analysis software offers greater precision and reproducibility than existing tools for tracking markers in videos, yielding greater sensitivity for measuring 3D motions with XROMM animations.
Summary: Individual energetic state appears to dictate future life-history strategy whereas an artificial stressor impairs growth and reduces survival regardless of life-history strategy.
Mitochondrial physiology in the skeletal and cardiac muscles is altered in torrent ducks, Merganetta armata, from high altitudes in the Andes
Summary: Torrent ducks display markedly different physiological and enzymatic specializations at high altitude, characterized by increased mitochondrial respiratory capacity, increased myoglobin content and reorganized enzymatic capacities.
The role of plantigrady and heel-strike in the mechanics and energetics of human walking with implications for the evolution of the human foot
Highlighted Article: Human heel-strike walking increases effective limb length through an anterior shift in the center of pressure, which helps reduce locomotor costs.
Accuracy of mandibular force profiles for bite force estimation and feeding behavior reconstruction in extant and extinct carnivorans
Summary: Computed tomography reveals that mandibular force profiles permit highly accurate reconstruction of bite force and feeding behavior in extant and extinct carnivorans.
The parasitic wasp Cotesia congregata uses multiple mechanisms to control host (Manduca sexta) behaviour
Summary: The parasitic wasp Cotesia congregata numbs the skin of its host, the caterpillar Manduca sexta, and suppresses host feeding. These manipulations prevent the host from attacking the parasite.
Highlighted Article: Long bristles on the wings of the smallest insects reduce the force required to ‘fling’ the wings apart while still maintaining lift.
Feel the heat: activation, orientation and feeding responses of bed bugs to targets at different temperatures
Summary: Bed bugs utilize heat to locate and feed on hosts, and show a characteristic increase in the number of responders and decrease in response time with increasing target temperature.
Speed-dependent interplay between local pattern-generating activity and sensory signals during walking in Drosophila
Summary: Leg amputation in fruit flies reveals that during walking inter-leg coordination strength increases with walking speed, thereby facilitating strict coordination during fast locomotion.
Effects of intermittent hypoxia on oxidative stress and protein degradation in molluscan mitochondria
Summary: Mitochondrial tolerance to intermittent hypoxia and anoxia correlates with the ability to maintain high activity of mitochondrial proteases and upregulate antioxidants in mollusks.
Summary: Maternal inheritance of metabolic phenotype predominates over mitonuclear mismatch in laboratory-reared hybrid progeny of two grasshopper mouse species that occasionally hybridize in nature.
The long road to steady state in gas exchange: metabolic and ventilatory responses to hypercapnia and hypoxia in Cuvier's dwarf caiman
Summary: Attainment of a steady state in gas exchange upon and following hypoxia and hypercapnia in reptiles may take a prolonged time, especially if blood flow and ventilation rates are low.