Cover: A Texas brown tarantula, Aphonopelma hentzi. Arachnids extend their leg joints hydraulically. Booster and co-authors (pp. 977–982) examined the effects of temperature on the joint kinematics of these spiders during sprinting. The coupling between in-series, hydraulically actuated joints was lowest at the highest temperature when the animals ran the fastest with the highest stride frequencies. The coordination of multiple, in-series hydraulically actuated joints may be limited by operating speed. Photo: A. N. Ahn; design: I. G. Ros.
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Pain in aquatic animals
Summary: This review discusses how aquatic animals may differ in their neurobiological and behavioural responses to injurious stimuli compared with terrestrial animals, which has interesting implications for the evolution of pain.
Effect of temperature on leg kinematics in sprinting tarantulas (Aphonopelma hentzi): high speed may limit hydraulic joint actuation
Highlighted Article: Tarantulas extend their leg joints hydraulically. The coupling between in-series, hydraulically actuated joints was lowest at the highest temperature when the animals ran the fastest with the highest stride frequencies. The coordination of multiple, in-series hydraulically actuated joints may be limited by operating speed.
Identification and characterization of the NMDA receptor and its role in regulating reproduction in the cockroach Diploptera punctata
Summary: The NMDA receptor in cockroaches does not appear to be involved in the regulation of JH biosynthesis and has no effect on female reproduction.
Functional morphology of the Alligator mississippiensis larynx with implications for vocal production
Summary: Morphology and laryngeal biomechanics are used to model the boundaries of the alligator's available acoustic space.
Conditioned frequency-dependent hearing sensitivity reduction in the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)
Summary: Conditioned dolphin hearing dampening, caused by pairing warning and loud sounds, was found to differ with frequency of the warning stimulus, suggesting that the hearing dampening was not due to a simple stapedial reflex.
Effects of signal features and background noise on distance cue discrimination by a songbird
Summary: Experiments with trained animals help understanding of how song birds perceive signals in their natural environment. We tested how background noise affects the perception of acoustic cues that aid assessing the distance of a sound source.
Cheating on the mutualistic contract: nutritional gain through seed predation in the frugivorous bat Chiroderma villosum (Phyllostomidae)
Highlighted Article: The frugivorous bat Chiroderma villosum obtains extra protein and fat by not only eating fruit pulp but also chewing seeds instead of dispersing them.
The role of the cerebral ganglia in the venom-induced behavioral manipulation of cockroaches stung by the parasitoid jewel wasp
Summary: We show that venom injection by the jewel wasp to either the subesophageal ganglion or the central complex in the brain is, by itself, sufficient to induce a long-term hypokinetic state in its cockroach prey.
Intraspecific scaling of the minimum metabolic cost of transport in leghorn chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus): links with limb kinematics, morphometrics and posture
Summary: Chickens with differing body size and posture but similar skeletal shape show no difference in the cost of transport.
Divergent physiological responses in laboratory rats and mice raised at high altitude
Summary: Rats and mice that have been raised for a similar period of time under conditions of chronic hypoxia at high altitude display divergent physiological responses.
Magnetic navigation behavior and the oceanic ecology of young loggerhead sea turtles
Highlighted Article: Lab-based experiments and simulations of observed behavior in an ocean circulation model give new insight into how magnetic navigation shapes the ecology of small sea turtles.
Bumblebees measure optic flow for position and speed control flexibly within the frontal visual field
Summary: Bumblebees control their flight using motion cues generated by the nearest obstacles in the frontal visual field, a strategy that enables them to fly safely in cluttered environments.
Transcriptional responses to fluctuating thermal regimes underpinning differences in survival in the solitary bee Megachile rotundata
Summary: Transcripts associated with chill injury, neurological development and longevity are up-regulated in bees exposed to fluctuating temperatures during post-diapause quiescence.
Octopus arm movements under constrained conditions: adaptation, modification and plasticity of motor primitives
Summary: The ability of the motor system to adapt and modify motor primitives is shown by introducing a physical constraint to the octopus arm.
Natural selection constrains personality and brain gene expression differences in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)
Summary: In Atlantic salmon, time of emergence from the nest is a trait linked to boldness, brain gene expression and monoaminergic function. This suggests divergent stress coping strategies of early and late emerging fish.
Ocean acidification impacts on sperm mitochondrial membrane potential bring sperm swimming behaviour near its tipping point
Highlighted Article: Sea urchin sperm motility under acidified conditions is shown to be related to reduced mitochondrial potential. Future forecasts of ocean acidification could place sea urchin sperm at their tolerance threshold.
Social dominance and reproductive differentiation mediated by dopaminergic signaling in a queenless ant
Summary: Dominant Diacamma ants have higher brain dopamine levels than subordinates and the fat body is the potential target of dopamine that mediates reproduction.
Mechanical challenges to freshwater residency in sharks and rays
Summary: The high negative buoyancy of elasmobranchs increases the cost of locomotion and may be responsible for the scarcity of sharks in fresh water.
New funding schemes for junior faculty staff
In celebration of our 100th anniversary, JEB has launched two new grants to support junior faculty staff working in animal comparative physiology and biomechanics who are within five years of setting up their first lab/research group. Check out our ECR Visiting Fellowships and Research Partnership Kickstart Travel Grants. First deadline for applications is 15 July 2023.
JEB@100: an interview with Monitoring Editor Sanjay Sane
Sanjay Sane tells us about his first experience of publishing with the journal and why he thinks JEB is going to play a key role in our understanding of the current climate crisis and its implications for biodiversity.
The Forest of Biologists
The Forest of Biologists is a biodiversity initiative created by The Company of Biologists, with support from the Woodland Trust. For every Research and Review article published in Journal of Experimental Biology a native tree is planted in a UK forest. In addition to this we are protecting and restoring ancient woodland and are dedicating these trees to our peer reviewers. Visit our virtual forest to learn more.
Celebrating 100 years of discovery
This Special Issue focuses on broad biological questions addressed through the lens of comparative biomechanics. Crosscutting through time, this series of Reviews, Commentaries and Research Articles addresses questions from the vantage points of the history of the field, today’s research, and the future of comparative biomechanics. Read the Editorial by Sheila Patek, Monica Daley and Sanjay Sane.
Centenary Review - Adaptive echolocation behavior
Cynthia F. Moss and colleagues Review the behaviours used by echolocating mammals to track and intercept moving prey, interrogate dynamic sonar scenes, and exploit visual and passive acoustic stimuli.
Crucial DNA at crux of insect wing size evolution
Keity Farfán-Pira and colleagues have revealed that a tiny region of regulatory DNA in the vestigial gene governs whether insect wings are large or small and has played a key role in the evolution of insect wing size.