METHODS & TECHNIQUES
Simultaneous measurement of 3D zooplankton trajectories and surrounding fluid velocity field in complex flows
Summary: An automated volumetric PIV and tracking method measures time-resolved, 3D zooplankton trajectories and surrounding volumetric fluid velocity fields simultaneously and non-intrusively.
Summary: Ankle push-off plays an important role of the energy expenditure of human walking, which can be explained by the mechanical work performed by the lower extremity joints.
Summary: The geometry of remora fish suction disc spinules increases passive friction on rough host surfaces such as shark skin.
Highlighted Article: Anosteocytic bone can adapt to loads by a combination of bone resorption and deposition, which suggests the presence of a non-osteocytic mechanosensing mechanism.
Patterns of oxygen consumption during simultaneously occurring elevated metabolic states in the viviparous snake Thamnophis marcianus
Summary: During simultaneously occurring elevated metabolic states, Thamnophis marcianus exhibits prioritization as the primary pattern of interaction in oxygen delivery. The metabolic processes associated with digestion, and perhaps reproduction, are temporarily compromised during activity.
Summary: Wood ants form linked memories of the distance and direction of their homeward foraging route.
Larger lacertid lizard species produce higher than expected iliotibialis muscle power output: the evolution of muscle contractile mechanics with body size
Summary: Co-evolution of larger body size with greater muscle stress and normalised power output occurred in lacertid lizard species.
Flea fitness is reduced by high fractional concentrations of CO2 that simulate levels found in their hosts' burrows
Highlighted Article: Fleas living in high fractional concentrations of CO2 have reduced survival and reproduction.
Evaluating cardiac physiology through echocardiography in bottlenose dolphins: using stroke volume and cardiac output to estimate systolic left ventricular function during rest and following exercise
Summary: Transthoracic ultrasound determines heart rate and stroke volume before and after exercise in bottlenose dolphins, providing the first data on the extreme cardiovascular plasticity in awake and unrestrained cetaceans in water.
Summary: Evolutionary changes to the timing of diapause will be key for insects to adapt to a globally warming climate; putative loci responsible for timing shifts are identified.
Interactive effects of seawater acidification and elevated temperature on biomineralization and amino acid metabolism in the mussel Mytilus edulis
Summary: The interactive effects of climate stressors on marine calcifiers highlight the negative effect of elevated temperature based on seawater acidification.
Avian thermoregulation in the heat: resting metabolism, evaporative cooling and heat tolerance in Sonoran Desert doves and quail
Highlighted Article: Species-level differences in heat tolerance may drive changes in desert bird communities as global temperatures continue to rise and heat waves become more frequent.
Summary: Human decathletes that excel in one event excel in all events, which is contrary to the pervasive idea that underlying functional constraints limit the development of a ‘master of all events’.
Chela asymmetry in a durophagous crab: predominance of right-handedness and handedness reversal is linked to chela size and closing force
Summary: Handedness in the swimming crab resides in the claw that is larger with greater apodeme height and has the stronger closing force.
Summary: Estradiol changes the basal activity of the auditory midbrain and limbic forebrain of female túngara frogs, and modifies the response of the preoptic area to mating calls.
Highlighted Article: Flight kinematics and adaptive sonar behavior in insectivorous, echolocating bats engaged in climbing and turning flight reveal tight coordination of adaptive flight and vocal motor systems.
Summary: In honey bee nests, the presence of a propolis envelope decreases baseline expression of immune-related genes over the course of the season and appears to benefit colony survivorship and strength in early spring.
Summary: Power amplification in a compliant muscle-tendon unit is maximal for intermediate inertial-gravitational loads and can be enhanced by a trigger and catch mechanism for small loads.